Items in AFP with MESH term: Chronic Disease
When a Patient's Chronic Pain Gets Worse - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: A systematic approach to chronic nonmalignant pain includes a comprehensive evaluation; a treatment plan determined by the diagnosis and mechanisms underlying the pain; patient education; and realistic goal setting. The main goal of treatment is to improve quality of life while decreasing pain. An initial comprehensive pain assessment is essential in developing a treatment plan that addresses the physical, social, functional, and psychological needs of the patient. One obstacle to appropriate pain management is managing the adverse effects of medication. Opioids pose challenges with abuse, addiction, diversion, lack of knowledge, concerns about adverse effects, and fears of regulatory scrutiny. These challenges may be overcome by adherence to the Federation of State Medical Boards guidelines, use of random urine drug screening, monitoring for aberrant behaviors, and anticipating adverse effects. When psychiatric comorbidities are present, risk of substance abuse is high and pain management may require specialized treatment or consultation. Referral to a pain management specialist can be helpful.
Fatigue: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: Fatigue, a common presenting symptom in primary care, negatively impacts work performance, family life, and social relationships. The differential diagnosis of fatigue includes lifestyle issues, physical conditions, mental disorders, and treatment side effects. Fatigue can be classified as secondary to other medical conditions, physiologic, or chronic. The history and physical examination should focus on identifying common secondary causes (e.g., medications, anemia, pregnancy) and life-threatening problems, such as cancer. Results of laboratory studies affect management in only 5 percent of patients, and if initial results are normal, repeat testing is generally not indicated. Treatment of all types of fatigue should include a structured plan for regular physical activity that consists of stretching and aerobic exercise, such as walking. Caffeine and modafinil may be useful for episodic situations requiring alertness. Short naps are proven performance enhancers. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline, may improve energy in patients with depression. Patients with chronic fatigue may respond to cognitive behavior therapy. Scheduling regular follow-up visits, rather than sporadic urgent appointments, is recommended for effective long-term management.
ABSTRACT: Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent in our society, with an incidence of 10 to 30 percent. It is a major cost to society in terms of health care expenditure and reduced productivity. Nonpharmacologic interventions have been studied and shown to produce reliable and sustained improvements in sleep patterns of patients with insomnia. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia has multiple components, including cognitive psychotherapy, sleep hygiene, stimulus control, sleep restriction, paradoxical intention, and relaxation therapy. Cognitive psychotherapy involves identifying a patient's dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, challenging their validity, and replacing them with more adaptive substitutes. Sleep hygiene education teaches patients about good sleep habits. Stimulus control therapy helps patients to associate the bedroom with sleep and sex only, and not other wakeful activities. Sleep restriction therapy consists of limiting time in bed to maximize sleep efficiency. Paradoxical intention seeks to remove the fear of sleep by advising the patient to remain awake. Relaxation therapies are techniques taught to patients to reduce high levels of arousal that interfere with sleep. Cognitive behavior therapy involves four to eight weekly sessions of 60 to 90 minutes each, and should be used more frequently as initial therapy for chronic insomnia.
Chronic Neck Pain - Photo Quiz