ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Acute Shoulder Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the human body. The cost of such versatility is an increased risk of injury. It is important that family physicians understand the anatomy of the shoulder, mechanisms of injury, typical physical and radiologic findings, approach to management of injuries, and indications for referral. Clavicle fractures are among the most common acute shoulder injuries, and more than 80 percent of them can be managed conservatively. Humeral head fractures are less common and usually occur in elderly persons; 85 percent of them can be managed nonoperatively. Common acute soft tissue injuries include shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, and acromioclavicular sprains. Acromioclavicular injuries are graded from types I to VI. Types I and II are treated conservatively, types IV to VI are treated surgically, and there is debate about the best approach for type III. Eighty percent of shoulder dislocations are anterior. Diagnosis of this injury is straightforward. The injury usually can be reduced by employing a number of nonsurgical techniques. Traumatic or acute rotator cuff tears can be managed conservatively or surgically, depending on the patient and the degree of injury.
Clavicle Fractures - Article
ABSTRACT: Clavicle fractures are most common in children and young adults, typically occurring in persons younger than 25 years. Its superficial location, its thin midshaft, and the forces transmitted across it make the clavicle a common site for injury. The most common mechanism of injury is a forceful fall with the arm at the side, which commonly occurs during contact sports. Diagnosis can often be made by the history and physical examination, although appropriate radiography should be used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment options. Most clavicle fractures occur in the midshaft and can be treated nonoperatively. A prominent callus is common in children, and parents may require reassurance. If a child has no history of trauma, then malignancy, rickets, and physical abuse should be considered. Surgery is an option in fractures that have high potential for nonunion (e.g., displaced or communited fractures, fractures with more than 15 to 20 mm clavicle shortening). Distal fractures are classified based on the relationship to the coracoclavicular ligaments, which determines the likelihood of displacement. Most distal fractures can also be treated nonoperatively; however, certain factors must be considered in children.