ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Management of Genital Warts - Article
ABSTRACT: Genital warts caused by human papillomavirus infection are encountered commonly in primary care. Evidence guiding treatment selection is limited, but treatment guidelines recently have changed. Biopsy, viral typing, acetowhite staining, and other diagnostic measures are not routinely required. The goal of treatment is clearance of visible warts; some evidence exists that treatment reduces infectivity, but there is no evidence that treatment reduces the incidence of cervical and genital cancer. The choice of therapy is based on the number, size, site, and morphology of lesions, as well as patient preferences, cost, convenience, adverse effects, and clinician experience. Patient-applied therapy such as imiquimod cream or podofilox is increasingly recommended. Podofilox, imiquimod, surgical excision, and cryotherapy are the most convenient and effective options. Fluorouracil and interferon are no longer recommended for routine use. The cost per successful treatment course is approximately dollars 200 to dollars 300 for podofilox, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, surgical excision, laser treatment, and the loop electrosurgical excision procedure.
ABSTRACT: Patients with a wide variety of anorectal lesions present to family physicians. Most can be successfully managed in the office setting. A high index of suspicion for cancer should be maintained and all patients should be questioned about relevant family history or other indications for cancer screening. Patients with condylomata acuminata must be examined for human papillomavirus infection elsewhere after treatment of the presenting lesions. Their sexual partners should also be counseled and screened. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are available for the pain of anal fissure. Infection in the anorectal area may present as different types of abscesses, cryptitis, fistulae or perineal sepsis. Fistulae may result from localized infection or indicate inflammatory bowel disease. Protrusion of tissue through the anus may be due to hemorrhoids, mucosal prolapse, polyps or other lesions.
ABSTRACT: Human papillomaviruses cause the most common sexually trans- mitted infection in the world and are responsible for nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Genital human papillomavirus infection can be divided into low-risk infections (causing genital warts) and high-risk infections (causing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical and other cancers). Exposure to human papilloma- virus typically produces a sexually transmitted infection that may progress to a clinically apparent process, such as genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of the lower genital tract. Although most human papillomavirus infections resolve spontane- ously within two years, some high-risk infections persist and are considered cancer precursors. Risk factors for persistent infection include multiple sex partners, sex at an early age, history of sexually transmitted infections, and smoking. Condom use is only partially protective against human papillomavirus infection. The two human papillomavirus vaccines are most effective if given to girls before the onset of sexual activity.
ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998. Several treatment advances have been made since the previous guidelines were published. Part II of this two-part series on STDs describes recommendations for the treatment of diseases characterized by vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, human papillomavirus infection, proctitis, proctocolitis, enteritis and ectoparasitic diseases. Single-dose therapies are recommended for the treatment of several of these diseases. A single 1-g dose of oral azithromycin is as effective as a seven-day course of oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice a day, for the treatment of chlamydial infection. Erythromycin and ofloxacin are alternative agents. Four single-dose therapies are now recommended for the management of uncomplicated gonococcal infections, including 400 mg of cefixime, 500 mg of ciprofloxacin, 125 mg of ceftriaxone or 400 mg of ofloxacin. Advances in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis also have been made. A seven-day course of oral metronidazole is still recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women, but intravaginal clindamycin cream and metronidazole gel are now recommended in nonpregnant women. Single-dose therapy with 150 mg of oral fluconazole is a recommended treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Two new topical treatments, podofilox and imiquimod, are available for patient self-administration to treat human papillomavirus infection. Permethrin cream is now the preferred agent for the treatment of pediculosis pubis and scabies.
Cutaneous Cryosurgery - Article
ABSTRACT: Cutaneous cryosurgery refers to localized application of freezing temperatures to achieve destruction of skin lesions. It can be used to treat a broad range of benign and premalignant skin conditions, and certain malignant skin conditions, with high cure rates. Cellular destruction is accomplished by delivery of the cryogen via dipstick, probe, or spray techniques. It is widely used in primary care because of its safety, effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, good cosmetic results, and lack of need for anesthesia. Cryosurgery is as effective as alternative therapies for most cases of molluscum contagiosum, dermatofibromas, keloids, and plantar or genital warts. It is a more effective cure for common warts than salicylic acid or observation. Cryosurgery is generally the treatment of choice for actinic keratosis. Contraindications to cryosurgery include cryofibrinogenemia, cryoglobulinemia, Raynaud disease, agammaglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma. Complications from cryosurgery include hypopigmentation and alopecia, and can be avoided by limiting freeze times to less than 30 seconds. Referral to a dermatologist should be considered in cases of diagnostic uncertainty or for treatment of skin cancer, which requires larger amounts of tissue destruction, resulting in higher complication rates.
Management of External Genital Warts - Article
ABSTRACT: Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus.