Items in AFP with MESH term: Contraceptive Agents, Female

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Associated with Hormonal Contraception - Article

ABSTRACT: Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Other options are to change to an OCP with a higher estrogen content or to a different formulation (i.e., a low-dose OCP containing a different progestin). Management strategies for women with abnormal uterine bleeding who are using progestin-only contraceptive methods include counseling and reassurance, as well as the administration of supplemental estrogen and/or an NSAID during bleeding episodes.


Dysmenorrhea - Article

ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absence in adolescent girls and a common problem in women of reproductive age. Risk factors for dysmenorrhea include nulliparity, heavy menstrual flow, smoking, and depression. Empiric therapy can be initiated based on a typical history of painful menses and a negative physical examination. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the initial therapy of choice in patients with presumptive primary dysmenorrhea. Oral contraceptives and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate also may be considered. If pain relief is insufficient, prolonged-cycle oral contraceptives or intravaginal use of oral contraceptive pills can be considered. In women who do not desire hormonal contraception, there is some evidence of benefit with the use of topical heat; the Japanese herbal remedy toki-shakuyaku-san; thiamine, vitamin E, and fish oil supplements; a low-fat vegetarian diet; and acupressure. If dysmenorrhea remains uncontrolled with any of these approaches, pelvic ultrasonography should be performed and referral for laparoscopy should be considered to rule out secondary causes of dysmenorrhea. In patients with severe refractory primary dysmenorrhea, additional safe alternatives for women who want to conceive include transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, acupuncture, nifedipine, and terbutaline. Otherwise, the use of danazol or leuprolide may be considered and, rarely, hysterectomy. The effectiveness of surgical interruption of the pelvic nerve pathways has not been established.


Same-Day Initiation of Hormonal Contraceptives - Cochrane for Clinicians


Contraceptive Patch and Vaginal Ring vs. Combined Oral Contraceptives - Cochrane for Clinicians


Contraception Choices in Women with Underlying Medical Conditions - Article

ABSTRACT: Primary care physicians often prescribe contraceptives to women of reproductive age with comorbidities. Novel delivery systems (e.g., contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, single-rod implantable device) may change traditional risk and benefit profiles in women with comorbidities. Effective contraceptive counseling requires an understanding of a woman’s preferences and medical history, as well as the risks, benefits, adverse effects, and contraindications of each method. Noncontraceptive benefits of combined hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptive pills, include regulated menses, decreased dysmenorrhea, and diminished premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Oral contraceptive pills may be used safely in women with a range of medical conditions, including well-controlled hypertension, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, depression, and uncomplicated valvular heart disease. However, women older than 35 years who smoke should avoid oral contraceptive pills. Contraceptives containing estrogen, which can increase thrombotic risk, should be avoided in women with a history of venous thromboembolism, stroke, cardiovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease. Progestin-only contraceptives are recommended for women with contraindications to estrogen. Depo-Provera, a long-acting injectable contraceptive, may be preferred in women with sickle cell disease because it reduces the frequency of painful crises. Because of the interaction between antiepileptics and oral contraceptive pills, Depo-Provera may also be considered in women with epilepsy. Implanon, the single-rod implantable contraceptive device, may reduce symptoms of dysmenorrhea. Mirena, the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine contraceptive system, is an option for women with menorrhagia, endometriosis, or chronic pelvic pain.


Managing Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraceptives - Article

ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives usually diminish with continued use of the same method. Often, physi- cians only need to reassure patients that these symptoms will likely resolve within three to five months. Long-acting injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is the only hormonal contraceptive that is consistently associated with weight gain; other hormonal methods are unlikely to increase weight independent of lifestyle choices. Switching com- bined oral contraceptives is not effective in treating headaches, nor is the use of multivitamins or diuretics. There are no significant differences among various combined oral contraceptives in terms of breast tenderness, mood changes, and nausea. Breakthrough bleeding is common in the first months of combined oral contraceptive use. If significant abnormal bleeding persists beyond three months, other methods can be considered, and the patient may need to be evaluated for other causes. Studies of adverse sexual effects in women using hormonal contraceptives are inconsistent, and the pharmacologic basis for these symptoms is unclear. If acne develops or worsens with progestin-only contra- ceptives, the patient should be switched to a combination method if she is medically eligible. There is insufficient evidence of any effect of hormonal contraceptives on breast milk quantity and quality. Patient education should be encouraged to decrease the chance of unanticipated adverse effects. Women can also be assessed for medical eligibility before and during the use of hormonal contraceptives.


Copper Intrauterine Device vs. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate for Contraception - Cochrane for Clinicians


Guidelines for the Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives - Practice Guidelines


Progestin-Only Contraceptives: Effects on Weight - Cochrane for Clinicians



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