Items in AFP with MESH term: Contraceptives, Oral

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Associated with Hormonal Contraception - Article

ABSTRACT: Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation of hormonal contraception and the resultant occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. The evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are using hormonal contraception includes an assessment of compliance, a thorough history and complete physical examination to exclude organic causes of bleeding, and a targeted laboratory evaluation. Pregnancy and the misuse of OCPs are frequent causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Bleeding is common during the first three months of OCP use; counseling and reassurance are adequate during this time period. If bleeding persists beyond three months, it can be treated with supplemental estrogen and/or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Other options are to change to an OCP with a higher estrogen content or to a different formulation (i.e., a low-dose OCP containing a different progestin). Management strategies for women with abnormal uterine bleeding who are using progestin-only contraceptive methods include counseling and reassurance, as well as the administration of supplemental estrogen and/or an NSAID during bleeding episodes.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Acne - Article

ABSTRACT: Acne can cause significant embarrassment and anxiety in affected patients. It is important for family physicians to educate patients about available treatment options and their expected outcomes. Topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, sulfacetamide, and azelaic acid are effective in patients with mild or moderate comedones. Topical erythromycin or clindamycin can be added in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory acne or mixed acne. A six-month course of oral erythromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, or minocycline can be used in patients with moderate to severe inflammatory acne. A low-androgen oral contraceptive pill is effective in women with moderate to severe acne. Isotretinoin is reserved for use in the treatment of the most severe or refractory cases of inflammatory acne. Because of its poor side effect profile and teratogenicity, isotretinoin (Accutane) must by prescribed by a physician who is a registered member of the manufacturer's System to Manage Accutane-Related Teratogenicity program.


Update on Oral Contraceptive Pills - Article

ABSTRACT: Oral contraceptive pills are widely used and are generally safe and effective for many women. The World Health Organization has developed a risk classification system to help physicians advise patients about the safety of oral contraceptive pills. The choice of pill formulation is influenced by clinical considerations. By choosing appropriately from the available pill formulations, family physicians can minimize negative side effects and maximize noncontraceptive benefits for their patients. Additional monitoring and follow-up are necessary in special populations, such as women over 35 years of age, smokers, perimenopausal women and adolescents. Third-generation progestins are additional options for achieving noncontraceptive benefits, but their use has raised new questions about thrombogenesis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has labeled emergency postcoital contraception for use following unprotected coitus. Oral contraceptive pills are associated with few clinically significant drug interactions, although consideration of interactions remains important.


Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs on Oral Contraceptives - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries


Drug Treatments for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Article

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms can be subtle and varied. These may include hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and biochemical abnormalities, most notably insulin resistance. Treatment should target specific manifestations and individualized patient goals. When choosing a treatment regimen, physicians must take into account comorbidities and the patient's desire for pregnancy. Lifestyle modifications should be used in addition to medical treatments for optimal results. Few agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifically for use in polycystic ovary syndrome, and several agents are contraindicated in pregnancy. Insulin-sensitizing agents are indicated for most women with polycystic ovary syndrome because they have positive effects on insulin resistance, menstrual irregularities, anovulation, hirsutism, and obesity. Metformin has the most data supporting its effectiveness. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are also effective for ameliorating hirsutism and insulin resistance. Metformin and clomiphene, alone or in combination, are first-line agents for ovulation induction. Insulin-sensitizing agents, oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and topical eflornithine can be used in patients with hirsutism.


A Group Practice Disagrees About Offering Contraception - Curbside Consultation


ACOG Releases Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Practice Guidelines


Preventing Gaps When Switching Contraceptives - Article

ABSTRACT: Unintended pregnancy can occur when women stop one birth control method before starting another. To prevent gaps in contraception, physicians should ask women regularly about adverse effects, cost, difficulty remembering the next dose, and other issues that affect adherence. Women who want to change contraceptive methods need accurate advice about how to do so. Some contraception transitions require an overlap between the old method and the new method. To switch safely from one contraceptive to another without overlap, women may go directly from the old method to the new method, abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a barrier method, such as condoms or spermicide, for the first seven days.


Evaluation and Treatment of Endometriosis - Article

ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, which affects up to 10 percent of reproductive-aged women, is the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It is more common in women with pelvic pain or infertility (25 to 40 percent and 70 to 90 percent, respectively). Some women with endometriosis are asymptomatic, whereas others present with symptoms such as debilitating pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and decreased fertility. Diagnosis of endometriosis in primary care is predominantly clinical. Initial treatment includes common agents used for primary dysmenorrhea, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combination estrogen/progestin contraceptives, or progestin-only contraceptives. There is some evidence that these agents are helpful and have few adverse effects. Referral to a gynecologist is necessary if symptoms persist or the patient is unable to become pregnant. Laparoscopy is commonly used to confirm the diagnosis before additional treatments are pursued. Further treatments include gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, danazol, or surgical removal of ectopic endometrial tissue. These interventions may control symptoms more effectively than initial treatments, but they can have significant adverse effects and limits on duration of therapy.



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