ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the principles of judicious antimicrobial therapy for three of the five conditions--cough, pharyngitis, the common cold--that account for most of the outpatient use of these drugs in the United States. The principles governing the other two conditions, otitis media and acute sinusitis, were presented in the previous issue. This article summarizes evidence against the use of antibiotic treatment for illness with cough or bronchitis in children, unless the cough is prolonged. Although empiric treatment may be started in patients with pharyngitis when streptococcal infection is suspected, the authors recommend withholding antibiotic treatment until antigen testing or culture is positive. There is never any indication for antibiotic treatment of the common cold; it is important to understand the natural history of colds, because symptoms such as mucopurulent rhinitis or cough, even when they persist for up to two weeks, do not necessarily indicate bacterial infection.
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic cough should avoid exposure to irritants that can trigger cough, and those who smoke should stop smoking. Patients who develop chronic cough in association with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy should be switched to an agent from another drug class. If cough persists, a chest radiograph should be ordered to rule out malignancy and other serious conditions. Postnasal drip syndrome, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease are the most likely causes of chronic cough in adults. If postnasal drip syndrome is suspected, a trial of a decongestant and a first-generation antihistamine is warranted. Pulmonary function testing with a methacholine challenge is the preferred test for confirming the diagnosis of asthma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease usually is diagnosed based on the symptoms and after a trial of therapy. If the cause of chronic cough remains unclear, high-resolution computed tomographic scanning of the chest, bronchoscopy, and referral to a pulmonary specialist may be indicated. The approach to diagnosing chronic cough in immunocompromised patients and children is similar to the approach in immunocompetent adults. However, a CD4+ cell count can help determine the potential for opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Respiratory tract infections, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease are the most common causes of chronic cough in children. Foreign body aspiration should be considered in young children. Congenital conditions, cystic fibrosis, and immune disorders are possible diagnoses in children with chronic cough and recurrent infection.
ABSTRACT: Chronic cough is a common problem in patients who visit family physicians. The three most common causes of chronic cough in those who are referred to pulmonary specialists are postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux. The initial treatment of patients with cough is often empiric and may involve a trial of decongestants, bronchodilators or histamine H2 antagonists, as monotherapy or in combination. If a therapeutic trial is not successful, sequential diagnostic testing including chest radiograph, purified protein derivative test for tuberculosis, computed tomography of the sinuses, methacholine challenge test or barium swallow may be indicated. By using a standard protocol for diagnosis and treatment, 90 percent of patients with chronic cough can be managed successfully in the family physician's office. However, in some cases it may take three to five months to determine a diagnosis and effective treatment. For the minority of patients in whom this diagnostic approach is unsuccessful, consultation with a pulmonary specialist is appropriate.
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease typically manifests as heartburn and regurgitation, but it may also present with atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, including asthma, chronic cough, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic sore throat, dental erosions, and noncardiac chest pain. Diagnosing atypical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease is often a challenge because heartburn and regurgitation may be absent, making it difficult to prove a cause-and-effect relationship. Upper endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring are insensitive and not useful for many patients as initial diagnostic modalities for evaluation of atypical symptoms. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, aggressive acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors twice daily before meals for three to four months is the standard treatment, although some studies have failed to show a significant benefit in symptomatic improvement. If these symptoms improve or resolve, patients may step down to a minimal dose of antisecretory therapy over the following three to six months. Surgical intervention via Nissen fundoplication is an option for patients who are unresponsive to aggressive antisecretory therapy. However, long-term studies have shown that some patients still require antisecretory therapy and are more likely to develop dysphagia, rectal flatulence, and the inability to belch or vomit.
Over-the-Counter Medications for Acute Cough Symptoms - Cochrane for Clinicians
Persistent Cough and Worsening Dyspnea - Photo Quiz
Inhaled Beta Agonists for Chronic, Nonspecific Cough in Children? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Guidelines for Treating Adults with Acute Cough - Editorials
Predicting Pneumonia in Adults with Respiratory Illness - Point-of-Care Guides