Items in AFP with MESH term: Crohn Disease
ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that affects up to 480,000 persons in the United States. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise, and arthralgias, and cause considerable morbidity. Speculation about genetic, environmental, dietary, infectious, and immunologic etiologies has led to treatment modalities directed at each theoretic cause, but therapy guidelines are determined by the severity of disease. Use of salicylates and/or antibiotics can be effective in mild to moderate disease, while steroids are the accepted therapy for more severe active disease. Azathioprine and other immunosuppresant drugs can be used as adjunctive therapy for active Crohn's disease and may help to maintain remission. Infliximab, an antibody to human tumor necrosis factor alpha, has proved successful in the treatment of severe refractory disease and generally causes only mild side effects. Therapy for Crohn's disease must involve treating comorbid conditions to improve the quality of life of patients.
Gynecologic Aspects of Crohn's Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Because Crohn's disease has a tendency to be transmural and to form fistulas, it may involve contiguous organs. Gynecologic involvement is frequent, diverse and often difficult to diagnose. Inflammation involving adjacent structures has been reported in as many as one third of patients. Enteric fistulas to the vagina, uterus, ovaries, perineum and vulva also have been reported. Diagnosis may not be obvious if pelvic involvement precedes active bowel disease, or if drainage is clear or mucoid. Abscesses, draining sinuses, edema and ulceration of the perineum or vulva are common, and are caused by direct extension from the involved bowel or by granulomas separated from the bowel by normal tissue. Lesions presenting with vulvar hypertrophy, a fluctuant mass or ulceration are easily misdiagnosed. Menstrual abnormalities are reported in more than one half of patients. Pelvic manifestations of Crohn's disease can be psychologically crippling. Patients or physicians may be hesitant to address serious psychosocial morbidity. To optimize management, physicians must be aware of the diverse manifestations, confusing presentations and psychologic morbidity of Crohn's disease.
Air, Air Everywhere - Photo Quiz
Painful Perianal Lesions - Photo Quiz
Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Patients with an inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, have recurrent symptoms with considerable morbidity. Patient involvement and education are necessary components of effective management. Mild disease requires only symptomatic relief and dietary manipulation. Mild to moderate disease can be managed with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds, including olsalazine and mesalamine. Mesalamine enemas and suppositories are useful in treating proctosigmoiditis. Antibiotics such as metronidazole may be required in patients with Crohn's disease. Corticosteroids are beneficial in patients with more severe symptoms, but side effects limit their use, particularly for chronic therapy. Immunosuppressant therapy may be considered in patients with refractory disease that is not amenable to surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnant women can be managed with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids. Since longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (especially ulcerative colitis) is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, periodic colonoscopy is warranted.
ABSTRACT: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract at any point from the mouth to the rectum. Patients may experience diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, abdominal masses, and anemia. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn’s disease include osteoporosis, inflammatory arthropathies, scleritis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, and erythema nodosum. Acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are often increased with inflammation and may correlate with disease activity. Levels of vitamin B12, folate, albumin, prealbumin, and vitamin D can help assess nutritional status. Colonoscopy with ileoscopy, capsule endoscopy, computed tomography enterography, and small bowel follow-through are often used to diagnose Crohn’s disease. Ultrasonography, computed axial tomography, scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging can assess for extraintestinal manifestations or complications (e.g., abscess, perforation). Mesalamine products are often used for the medical management of mild to moderate colonic Crohn’s disease. Antibiotics (e.g., metronidazole, fluoroquinolones) are often used for treatment. Patients with moderate to severe Crohn’s disease are treated with corticosteroids, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or anti–tumor necrosis factor agents (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab). Severe disease may require emergent hospitalization and a multidisciplinary approach with a family physician, gastroenterologist, and surgeon.