ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
ABSTRACT: Grapefruit is a healthy addition to a well-balanced diet. However, the fruit has been shown to affect the metabolism of many medications, increasing the risk of toxicity and adverse effects. Characteristics of oral medications that may interact with grapefruit include extensive metabolism through the intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 system, low bioavailability, and a narrow therapeutic index. Prominent medications known to interact with grapefruit include statins, antiarrhythmic agents, immunosuppressive agents, and calcium channel blockers. There are equally effective alternatives to these drug classes that do not have the potential to interact with grapefruit. These alternative drugs may be substituted if a patient experiences or is at risk of a grapefruit-drug interaction. Patients also may choose to exclude grapefruit from their diets and consume other fruits, including other types of citrus, to avoid an interaction.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 enzymes are essential for the metabolism of many medications. Although this class has more than 50 enzymes, six of them metabolize 90 percent of drugs, with the two most significant enzymes being CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Genetic variability (polymorphism) in these enzymes may influence a patient's response to commonly prescribed drug classes, including beta blockers and antidepressants. Cytochrome P450 enzymes can be inhibited or induced by drugs, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions that can cause unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. Interactions with warfarin, antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, and statins often involve the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knowledge of the most important drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as the most potent inhibiting and inducing drugs, can help minimize the possibility of adverse drug reactions and interactions. Although genotype tests can determine if a patient has a specific enzyme polymorphism, it has not been determined if routine use of these tests will improve outcomes.
Genetic Factors In Drug Metabolism - Article
ABSTRACT: Patients vary widely in their response to drugs. Having an understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various medications is importantwhen assessing ethnic differences in drug response. Genetic factors can account for 20 to 95 percent of patient variability. Genetic polymorphisms for many drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug targets (e.g., receptors) have been identified. Although currently limited to a few pathways, pharmacogenetic testing may enable physicians to understand why patients react differently to various drugs and to make better decisions about therapy. Ultimately, this understanding may shift the medical paradigm to highly individualized therapeutic regimens.
ABSTRACT: Many drug interactions are a result of inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450). The CYP3A subfamily is involved in many clinically significant drug interactions, including those involving nonsedating antihistamines and cisapride, that may result in cardiac dysrhythmias. CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes are involved in drug interactions involving theophylline. CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotherapeutic agents. The protease inhibitors, which are used to treat patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, are metabolized by the CYP450 enzymes and consequently interact with a multitude of other medications. By understanding the unique functions and characteristics of these enzymes, physicians may better anticipate and manage drug interactions and may predict or explain an individual's response to a particular therapeutic regimen.
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs