Items in AFP with MESH term: Deficiency Diseases
Anemia in Older Persons - Article
ABSTRACT: Anemia in older persons is commonly overlooked despite mounting evidence that low hemoglobin levels are a significant marker of physiologic decline. Using the World Health Organization definition of anemia (hemoglobin level less than 13 g per dL [130 g per L] in men and less than 12 g per dL [120 g per L] in women), more than 10 percent of persons older than 65 years are anemic. The prevalence increases with age, approaching 50 percent in chronically ill patients living in nursing homes. There is increasing evidence that even mild anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Anemia warrants evaluation in all older persons, except those at the end of life or who decline interventions. About one third of persons have anemia secondary to a nutritional deficiency, one third have anemia caused by chronic inflammation or chronic kidney disease, and one third have unexplained anemia. Nutritional anemia is effectively treated with vitamin or iron replacement. Iron deficiency anemia often is caused by gastrointestinal bleeding and requires further investigation in most patients. Anemia of chronic inflammation or chronic kidney disease may respond to treatment of the underlying disease and selective use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The treatment of unexplained anemia is difficult, and there is little evidence that treatment decreases morbidity and mortality, or improves quality of life. Occasionally, anemia may be caused by less common but potentially treatable conditions, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, malignancy, or myelodysplastic syndrome.
ABSTRACT: When monitoring growth and development in the premature infant, physicians should make adjustments for the estimated due date. With minor exceptions, administration of immunizations is based on the chronologic age. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be delayed until the infant weighs 2,000 g (4 lb, 5 oz). Administration of influenza vaccine should be considered in infants with chronic medical problems, and the pneumococcal vaccine may be beneficial at age two in children with chronic problems, especially pulmonary disease. Premature infants should also be monitored to assure appropriate nutrition. Breast-fed infants should probably receive vitamin supplements during the first year. Supplemental iron should be initiated at two weeks to two months after birth and continued for 12 to 15 months. Office care includes screening for problems that occur more frequently in premature infants, especially vision and hearing problems. Because many of these infants require care from multiple medical disciplines, coordination of care is another important role for the family physician. The goals of this care are to promote normal growth and development and minimize morbidity and mortality.