ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Antidepressants for the Treatment of Insomnia in Patients with Depression - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Screening for Depression - Article
ABSTRACT: In the United States, depression affects up to 9 percent of patients and accounts for more than $43 billion in medical care costs. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening in adolescents and adults in clinical practices that have systems in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up. It does not recommend for or against screening for depression in children seven to 11 years of age or screening for suicide risk in the general population. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-2 and PHQ-9 are commonly used and validated screening tools. The PHQ-2 has a 97 percent sensitivity and 67 percent specificity in adults, whereas the PHQ-9 has a 61 percent sensitivity and 94 percent specificity in adults. If the PHQ-2 is positive for depression, the PHQ-9 should be administered; in older adults, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale is also an appropriate follow-up test. If these screening tests are positive for depression, further evaluation is needed to confirm that the patient’s symptoms meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ criteria for diagnosis.
Evaluating and Treating Sexual Addiction - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Psychological distress is common in terminally ill persons and can be a source of great suffering. Grief is an adaptive, universal, and highly personalized response to the multiple losses that occur at the end of life. This response may be intense early on after a loss manifesting itself physically, emotionally, cognitively, behaviorally, and spiritually; however, the impact of grief on daily life generally decreases with time. Although pharmacologic interventions are not warranted for uncomplicated grief, physicians are encouraged to support patients by acknowledging their grief and encouraging the open expression of emotions. It is important for the physician to distinguish uncomplicated grief reactions from more disabling psychiatric disorders such as major depression. The symptoms of grief may overlap with those of major depression or a terminal illness or its treatment; however, grief is a distinct entity. Feelings of pervasive hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, guilt, lack of pleasure, and suicidal ideation are present in patients with depression, but not in those experiencing grief. Psychotherapy and antidepressant medications reduce symptoms of distress and improve quality of life for patients with depression. Physicians may consider psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, for patients who have depression with a life expectancy of only days to weeks.
Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
ABSTRACT: Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide it. Although helping adolescents prevent unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unintentional injuries, depression, suicide, and other problems is a community-wide effort, primary care physicians are well situated to discuss risks and offer interventions. Evidence supports routinely screening for obesity and depression, offering testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection, and screening for other sexually transmitted infections in some adolescents. Evidence validating the effectiveness of physician counseling about unintended pregnancy, gang violence, and substance abuse is scant. However, physicians should use empathic, personal messages to communicate with adolescents about these issues until studies prove the benefits of more specific methods. Effective communication with adolescents requires seeing the patient alone, tailoring the discussion to the individual patient, and understanding the role of the parents and of confidentiality.