Items in AFP with MESH term: Diabetes Mellitus
ABSTRACT: The family physician's holistic approach to patients forms the basis of good health care for adults with Down syndrome. Patients with Down syndrome are likely to have a variety of illnesses, including thyroid disease, diabetes, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hearing loss, atlantoaxial subluxation and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to routine health screening, patients with Down syndrome should be screened for sleep apnea, hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of spinal cord compression and dementia. Patients with Down syndrome may have an unusual presentation of an ordinary illness or condition, and behavior changes or a loss of function may be the only indication of medical illnesses. Plans for long-term living arrangements, estate planning and custody arrangements should be discussed with the parents or guardians. Because of improvements in health care and better education, and because more people with this condition are being raised at home, most adults with Down syndrome can expect to function well enough to live in a group home and hold a meaningful job.
Perioperative Management of Diabetes - Article
ABSTRACT: Maintaining glycemic and metabolic control is difficult in diabetic patients who are undergoing surgery. The preoperative evaluation of all patients with diabetes should include careful screening for asymptomatic cardiac or renal disease. Frequent self-monitoring of glucose levels is important in the week before surgery so that insulin regimens can be adjusted as needed. Oral agents and long-acting insulin are usually discontinued before surgery, although the newer long-acting insulin analog glargine may be appropriately administered for basal insulin coverage throughout the surgical period. The usual regimen of sliding scale subcutaneous insulin for perioperative glycemic control may be a less preferable method because it can have unreliable absorption and lead to erratic blood glucose levels. Intravenous insulin infusion offers advantages because of the more predictable absorption rates and ability to rapidly titrate insulin delivery up or down to maintain proper glycemic control. Insulin is typically infused at 1 to 2 U per hour and adjusted according to the results of frequent blood glucose checks. A separate infusion of dextrose prevents hypoglycemia. Potassium is usually added to the dextrose infusion at 10 to 20 mEq per L in patients with normal renal function and normal preoperative serum potassium levels. Frequent monitoring of electrolytes and acid-base status is important during the perioperative period, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes because ketoacidosis can develop at modest levels of hyperglycemia.
Necrotizing (Malignant) External Otitis - Article
ABSTRACT: Necrotizing (malignant) external otitis, an infection involving the temporal and adjacent bones, is a relatively rare complication of external otitis. It occurs primarily in immunocompromised persons, especially older persons with diabetes mellitus, and is often initiated by self-inflicted or iatrogenic trauma to the external auditory canal. The most frequent pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patients with necrotizing external otitis complain of severe otalgia that worsens at night, and otorrhea. Clinical findings include granulation tissue in the external auditory canal, especially at the bone-cartilage junction. Facial and other cranial nerve palsies indicate a poor prognosis; intracranial complications are the most frequent cause of death. Diagnosis requires culture of ear secretions and pathologic examination of granulation tissue from the infection site. Imaging studies may include computed tomographic scanning, technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scanning, and gallium citrate Ga 67 scintigraphy. Treatment includes correction of immunosuppression (when possible), local treatment of the auditory canal, long-term systemic antibiotic therapy and, in selected patients, surgery. Family physicians and others who provide medical care for immunocompromised patients should be alert to the possibility of necrotizing external otitis in patients who complain of otalgia, particularly if they have diabetes mellitus and external otitis that has been refractory to standard therapy. Susceptible patients should be educated to avoid manipulation of the ear canal (i.e., they should not use cotton swabs to clean their ears) and to minimize exposure of the ear canal to water with a high chloride concentration. Appropriate patients should be referred to an otolaryngologist.
ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose form an intermediate stage in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. From 10 to 15 percent of adults in the United States have one of these conditions. Impaired glucose tolerance is defined as two-hour glucose levels of 140 to 199 mg per dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol) on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and impaired fasting glucose is defined as glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg per dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol per L) in fasting patients. These glucose levels are above normal but below the level that is diagnostic for diabetes. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose have a significant risk of developing diabetes and thus are an important target group for primary prevention. Risk factors for diabetes include family history of diabetes, body mass index greater than 25 kg per m2, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension, dyslipidemia, history of gestational diabetes or large-for-gestational-age infant, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Blacks, Latin Americans, Native Americans, and Asian-Pacific Islanders also are at increased risk for diabetes. Patients at higher risk should be screened with a fasting plasma glucose level. When the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose is made, physicians should counsel patients to lose 5 to 7 percent of their body weight and engage in moderate physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week. Drug therapy with metformin or acarbose has been shown to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. However, medications are not as effective as lifestyle changes, and it is not known if treatment with these drugs is cost effective in the management of impaired glucose tolerance.
ABSTRACT: Healthy eating and increased physical activity can prevent or delay diabetes and its complications. Techniques that facilitate adherence to these lifestyle changes can be adapted to primary care. Often, the patient's readiness to work toward change must be developed gradually. To prepare patients who are reluctant to change, it is effective to assess and address their conviction and confidence. Patients facing the long-term task of making lifestyle changes benefit from assistance in setting highly specific behavior-outcome goals and short-term behavior targets. Individualization is achieved by tailoring these goals and targets to the patient's preferences and progress, building the patient's confidence in small steps, and implementing more intensive interventions according to a stepped-care model. At each office visit, physician follow-up of the patient's self-monitored goals and targets enhances motivation and allows further customization of the plan. A coaching approach can be used to encourage positive choices, develop self-sufficiency, and assist the patient in identifying and overcoming barriers. More intensive intervention using a team approach maximizes adherence.
ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the important role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis, chronic kidney disease can affect almost every body system. Early recognition and intervention are essential to slowing disease progression, maintaining quality of life, and improving outcomes. Family physicians have the opportunity to screen at-risk patients, identify affected patients, and ameliorate the impact of chronic kidney disease by initiating early therapy and monitoring disease progression. Aggressive blood pressure control, with a goal of 130/80 mm Hg or less, is recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are most effective because of their unique ability to decrease proteinuria. Hyperglycemia should be treated; the goal is an AIC concentration below 7 percent. In patients with dyslipidemia, statin therapy is appropriate to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Anemia should be treated, with a target hemoglobin concentration of 11 to 12 g per dL (110 to 120 g per L). Hyperparathyroid disease requires dietary phosphate restrictions, antacid use, and vitamin D supplementation; if medical therapy fails, referral for surgery is necessary. Counseling on adequate nutrition should be provided, and smoking cessation must be encouraged at each office visit.
ABSTRACT: The American Diabetes Association currently recommends an A1C goal of less than 7 percent. However, many patients are unable to achieve this goal by using oral drug combinations or diet and exercise, leaving insulin as the only treatment option. In most cases, insulin is initiated later in therapy because of its inconvenience and adverse effects (e.g., weight gain, hypoglycemia, possible role in atherogenesis). Although insulin effectively helps patients attain glucose goals, the search for new agents continues. Two injectable agents, pramlintide and exenatide, were approved in 2005 for the treatment of diabetes. Pramlintide, indicated for use in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, is a synthetic analogue of human amylin that acts in conjunction with insulin to delay gastric emptying and inhibit the release of glucagon. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic, has multiple mechanisms for lowering glucose levels, including the enhancement of insulin secretion, and is indicated for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials have shown that both agents reduce, by a statistically significant degree, A1C levels (0.3 to 0.7 percent more than placebo), fasting plasma glucose levels, and body weight (3 to 5 lb [1.4 to 2.3 kg]). No studies have examined their effects on diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, or overall mortality. Pramlintide and exenatide may help make glycemic goals more attainable.
ABSTRACT: Home monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home monitoring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Glucose meters currently on the market produce results within 15 percent of serum blood glucose readings and offer a variety of features. Although the data are somewhat conflicting, home glucose monitoring has been associated with improved glycemic control and reduced long-term complications from diabetes. These effects are more pronounced in patients who take insulin. Home blood pressure values predict target organ damage and cardiovascular outcomes better than values obtained in the office. Home blood pressure measurements are also effective at detecting borderline hypertension and monitoring the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs. Validated arm cuffs are the preferred blood pressure devices for home use. Information from home monitoring should always be used in conjunction with that from regular office visits and other data to make appropriate therapeutic decisions.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians commonly care for patients with serious mental illness. Patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders have more comorbid medical conditions and higher mortality rates than patients without serious mental illness. Many medications prescribed for serious mental illness have significant metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects. Patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics should receive preventive counseling and treatment for obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. First- and second-generation antipsychotics have been associated with QT prolongation. Many common medications can interact with antipsychotics, increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Drug interactions can also lead to increased adverse effects, increased or decreased drug levels, toxicity, or treatment failure. Physicians should carefully consider the risks and benefits of second-generation antipsychotic medications, and patient care should be coordinated between primary care physicians and mental health professionals to prevent serious adverse effects.
ABSTRACT: Research has established the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels near normal in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Short-acting insulin analogs are designed to overcome the limitations of regular short-acting insulins. Compared with regular human insulin, the analog insulin lispro offers faster subcutaneous absorption, an earlier and greater insulin peak and a more rapid postpeak decrease. Insulin lispro begins to exert its effects within 15 minutes of subcutaneous administration, and peak levels occur 30 to 90 minutes after administration. Duration of activity is less than five hours. Rates of insulin allergy, lipodystrophy, hypoglycemia and abnormal laboratory test results are essentially the same in patients using insulin lispro and in those using regular human insulin.