Items in AFP with MESH term: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
ABSTRACT: Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in helping patients make essential lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of these complications. Key recommendations that family physicians can give patients to optimize their outcomes include: take control of daily decisions regarding your health, focus on preventing and controlling risk factors for cardiovascular disease, tightly control your blood glucose level, be cognizant of potentially inaccurate blood glucose test results, use physiologic insulin replacement regimens, and learn how to manage and prevent hypoglycemia.
ABSTRACT: The American Diabetes Association currently recommends an A1C goal of less than 7 percent. However, many patients are unable to achieve this goal by using oral drug combinations or diet and exercise, leaving insulin as the only treatment option. In most cases, insulin is initiated later in therapy because of its inconvenience and adverse effects (e.g., weight gain, hypoglycemia, possible role in atherogenesis). Although insulin effectively helps patients attain glucose goals, the search for new agents continues. Two injectable agents, pramlintide and exenatide, were approved in 2005 for the treatment of diabetes. Pramlintide, indicated for use in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, is a synthetic analogue of human amylin that acts in conjunction with insulin to delay gastric emptying and inhibit the release of glucagon. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic, has multiple mechanisms for lowering glucose levels, including the enhancement of insulin secretion, and is indicated for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials have shown that both agents reduce, by a statistically significant degree, A1C levels (0.3 to 0.7 percent more than placebo), fasting plasma glucose levels, and body weight (3 to 5 lb [1.4 to 2.3 kg]). No studies have examined their effects on diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, or overall mortality. Pramlintide and exenatide may help make glycemic goals more attainable.
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Low Glycemic Index Diets for the Management of Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians
ABSTRACT: Based on etiology, diabetes is classified as type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of youth, and miscellaneous causes. The diagnosis is based on measurement of A1C level, fasting or random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define patients who are unlikely to have diabetes. Tests that may help establish the type of diabetes or the continued need for insulin include those reflective of beta cell function, such as C peptide levels, and markers of immune-mediated beta cell destruction (e.g., autoantibodies to islet cells, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase [IA-2a and IA-2ß]). Antibody testing is limited by availability, cost, and predictive value.
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults - Editorials
The Blood Sugar Diaries - Close-ups
ABSTRACT: New recommendations for the classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus include the preferred use of the terms "type 1" and "type 2" instead of "IDDM" and "NIDDM" to designate the two major types of diabetes mellitus; simplification of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus to two abnormal fasting plasma determinations; and a lower cutoff for fasting plasma glucose (126 mg per dL [7 mmol per L] or higher) to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. These changes provide an easier and more reliable means of diagnosing persons at risk of complications from hyperglycemia. Currently, only one half of the people who have diabetes mellitus have been diagnosed. Screening for diabetes mellitus should begin at 45 years of age and should be repeated every three years in persons without risk factors, and should begin earlier and be repeated more often in those with risk factors. Risk factors include obesity, first-degree relatives with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia or previous evidence of impaired glucose homeostasis. Earlier detection of diabetes mellitus may lead to tighter control of blood glucose levels and a reduction in the severity of complications associated with this disease.