Items in AFP with MESH term: Diagnostic Errors
ABSTRACT: Early and accurate detection of eye disorders in children can present a challenge for family physicians. Visual acuity screening, preferably performed before four years of age, is essential for diagnosing amblyopia. Cover testing may disclose small-angle or intermittent strabismus. Leukocoria, which is detected with an ophthalmoscope, may indicate retinoblastoma or cataract. Children with glaucoma may have light sensitivity and enlargement of the cornea, and conjunctivitis that does not respond quickly to treatment may reflect more serious ocular inflammation. Children with serious eye injuries often present to the primary care physician. Nystagmus and many systemic conditions are associated with specific eye findings.
ABSTRACT: Most ankle injuries are straightforward ligamentous injuries. However, the clinical presentation of subtle fractures can be similar to that of ankle sprains, and these fractures are frequently missed on initial examination. Fractures of the talar dome may be medial or lateral, and they are usually the result of inversion injuries, although medial injuries may be atraumatic. Lateral talar process fractures are characterized by point tenderness over the lateral process. Posterior talar process fractures are often associated with tenderness to deep palpation anterior to the Achilles tendon over the posterolateral talus, and plantar flexion may exacerbate the pain. These fractures can often be managed nonsurgically with nonweight-bearing status and a short leg cast worn for approximately four weeks. Delays in treatment can result in long-term disability and surgery. Computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imaging may be required because these fractures are difficult to detect on plain films.
Cost Effectiveness Begins Between Your Ears - Improving Patient Care
Multiple Erythematous Plaques of the Trunk - Photo Quiz
Flaws in Clinical Reasoning: A Common Cause of Diagnostic Error - Curbside Consultation
ABSTRACT: Swift diagnosis and treatment are critical for good outcomes in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is usually caused by a ruptured aneurysm. This type of stroke often results in death or disability. Rates of misdiagnosis and treatment delays for subarachnoid hemorrhage have improved over the years, but these are still common occurrences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can be more easily diagnosed in patients who present with severe symptoms, unconsciousness, or with thunderclap headache, which is often accompanied by vomiting. The diagnosis is more elusive in patients who present in good condition, yet these patients have the best chance for good outcome if they are correctly diagnosed at the time of presentation. Physicians should be alert for warning headaches, which are often severe, and headaches that feel different to the patient. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, nuchal rigidity, orbital pain, focal neurologic deficits, dysphasia, lightheadedness, and dizziness. The most important risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage include cigarette smoking, hypertension, heavy alcohol use, and personal or family history of aneurysm or hemorrhagic stroke. The first step in the diagnostic workup is noncontrast computed tomography of the head. If computed tomography is negative or equivocal, a lumbar puncture should be performed. Subsequent imaging may include computed tomographic angiography, catheter angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography.