Items in AFP with MESH term: Diet, Reducing
Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - Article
ABSTRACT: The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the U.S. population. The National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III has identified metabolic syndrome as an indication for vigorous lifestyle intervention. Effective interventions include diet, exercise, and judicious use of pharmacologic agents to address specific risk factors. Weight loss significantly improves all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Increasing physical activity and decreasing caloric intake by reducing portion sizes will improve metabolic syndrome abnormalities, even in the absence of weight loss. Specific dietary changes that are appropriate for addressing different aspects of the syndrome include reducing saturated fat intake to lower insulin resistance, reducing sodium intake to lower blood pressure, and reducing high-glycemic-index carbohydrate intake to lower triglyceride levels. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with metabolic syndrome. Family physicians can be more effective in helping patients to change their lifestyle behaviors by assessing each patient for the presence of specific risk factors, clearly communicating these risk factors to patients, identifying appropriate interventions to address specific risks, and assisting patients in identifying barriers to behavior change.
Low-Carbohydrate Diets - Article
ABSTRACT: Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking. Short-term studies comparing traditional low-fat diets with low-carbohydrate diets found lower triglyceride levels, higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and lower A1C levels in persons on low-carbohydrate diets. These diets induce greater weight loss at three and six months than traditional low-fat diets; however, by one year there is no significant difference in maintained weight loss. Weight loss is directly related to calorie content and the ability to maintain caloric restriction; the proportions of nutrients in the diet are irrelevant. Low-carbohydrate diets had lower dropout rates than low-fat diets in several studies, possibly because of the high protein content and low glycemic index, which can be appetite suppressing. Data indicate that low-carbohydrate diets are a safe, reasonable alternative to low-fat diets for weight loss. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of these and other approaches to weight loss.
Are Low-Fat Diets Better than Other Weight-Reducing Diets in Achieving Long-Term Weight Loss? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Low-Carbohydrate Dieting - Editorials
ABSTRACT: Roughly two thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Obesity increases the risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, pulmonary disease, hepatobiliary disease, cancer, and a number of psychosocial complications. Physicians often feel unprepared to handle this important problem. Practical office-based strategies include: (1) making recommendations for assisted self-management, including guidance on popular diets, (2) advising patients about commercial weight-loss programs, (3) advising patients about and prescribing medications, (4) recommending bariatric surgery, and (5) supplementing these strategies with counseling about lifestyle changes using a systematic approach. Family physicians should provide basic information about the effectiveness and safety of popular diets and commercial weight-loss programs, and refer patients to appropriate information sources. Sibutramine and orlistat, the only medications currently approved for the long-term treatment of obesity, should only be prescribed in combination with lifestyle changes. Bariatric surgery is an option for adults with a body mass index of 40 kg per m2 or higher, or for those with a body mass index of 35 kg per m2 or higher who have obesity-related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The five A’s behavioral counseling paradigm (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) can be used as the basis for a systematic, practical approach to the management of obesity that incorporates evidence for managing common obesity-related behaviors.
Let's Treat Obesity Seriously - Editorials
Weight Loss Maintenance - Article
ABSTRACT: Successful long-term weight loss maintenance can be achieved by various means. A combination of dietary and physical activity interventions, along with one or more behavioral approaches, has proven successful in some persons, as documented by the National Weight Control Registry, but is limited by adherence to a consistent weight loss regimen. Successful approaches to weight loss maintenance include consulting with a physician, nutritionist, or another support source; adhering to a stable diet with a limited variety of food; monitoring weight; eating breakfast; and exercising regularly. Long-term pharmacologic treatments for weight loss maintenance have been studied and were found to have modest success, with some weight regain typically reported. Sibutramine and orlistat are the two medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration with the potential to help patients achieve long-term weight loss maintenance. Bariatric surgery is another modality for accomplishing successful long-term weight loss maintenance in patients with morbid or complicated obesity. Its success is due in large part to better weight loss outcomes, more successful long-term weight loss maintenance, and remission of comorbid medical conditions.