Items in AFP with MESH term: Disability Evaluation
ABSTRACT: Family physicians are frequently asked to complete disability certification forms for workers. The certification process can be contentious because of the number of stakeholders, the varying definitions of disability and the nature of the administrative systems. Insufficient training on disability during medical school and residency complicates this process. Disability systems discussed include workers' compensation, private disability insurance, the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act. Strategies that help the physician complete disability certification forms effectively include identification of disability type, ascertainment of the definition of disability being applied, evaluation of workplace demands and essential job functions, assessment of worker capacity, and accurate and timely completion of the forms in their entirety.
Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - Article
ABSTRACT: The presentation of cerebral palsy can be global mental and physical dysfunction or isolated disturbances in gait, cognition, growth, or sensation. It is the most common childhood physical disability and affects 2 to 2.5 children per 1,000 born in the United States. The differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy includes metabolic and genetic disorders. The goals of treatment are to improve functionality and capabilities toward independence. Multispecialty treatment teams should be developed around the needs of each patient to provide continuously updated global treatment care plans. Complications of cerebral palsy include spasticity and contractures; feeding difficulties; drooling; communication difficulties; osteopenia; osteoporosis; fractures; pain; and functional gastrointestinal abnormalities contributing to bowel obstruction, vomiting, and constipation. Valid and reliable assessment tools to establish baseline functions and monitor developmental gains have contributed to an increasing body of evidenced-based recommendations for cerebral palsy. Many of the historical treatments for this ailment are being challenged, and several new treatment modalities are available. Adult morbidity and mortality from ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, and trauma are higher in patients with cerebral palsy than in the general population.
ABSTRACT: As many as 90 percent of persons with occupational nonspecific low back pain are able to return to work in a relatively short period of time. As long as no "red flags" exist, the patient should be encouraged to remain as active as possible, minimize bed rest, use ice or heat compresses, take anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications if desired, participate in home exercises, and return to work as soon as possible. Medical and surgical intervention should be minimized when abnormalities on physical examination are lacking and the patient is having difficulty returning to work after four to six weeks. Personal and occupational psychosocial factors should be addressed thoroughly, and a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program should be strongly considered to prevent delayed recovery and chronic disability. Patient advocacy should include preventing unnecessary and ineffective medical and surgical interventions, prolonged work loss, joblessness, and chronic disability.
ABSTRACT: Physicians are frequently involved in the assessment of impairment and disability as the treating physician, in consultation, or as an independent medical examiner. The key elements of this assessment include a comprehensive clinical evaluation and appropriate standardized testing to establish the diagnosis, characterize the severity of impairment, and communicate the patient's abilities, restrictions, and need for accommodation. In some cases, a functional capacity evaluation performed by a physical or occupational therapist or a neuropsychological evaluation performed by a neuropsychologist may be required to further clarify the functional capacity of the patient. The results of the impairment evaluation should be communicated in clear, simple terms to nonmedical professionals representing the benefits systems. These individuals make the final determination on the extent of disability and eligibility for benefits and compensation under that particular benefits system.
Evaluating Patients for Return to Work - Article
ABSTRACT: The family physician is often instrumental in the process of returning a patient to the workplace after injury or illness. Initially, the physician must gain an understanding of the job's demands through detailed discussions with the patient, the patient's work supervisor or the occupational medicine staff at the patient's place of employment. Other helpful sources of information include job demand analysis evaluations and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. With an adequate knowledge of job requirements and patient limitations, the physician should document specific workplace restrictions, ensuring a safe and progressive reentry to work. Occupational rehabilitation programs such as work hardening may be prescribed, if necessary. If the physician is unsure of the patient's status, a functional capacity evaluation should be considered. The family physician should also be familiar with the Americans with Disabilities Act as it applies to the patient's "fitness" to perform the "essential tasks" of the patient's job.
Predicting Benefit of Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain - Point-of-Care Guides
A Patient Seeking Disability - Curbside Consultation
Disability Revisited - Curbside Consultation
A Pilot Grounded: Living with Chronic Back Pain - Close-ups