Items in AFP with MESH term: Drug Resistance, Microbial
ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of antimicrobial agents, there has been an association between antibiotic use and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic therapy eradicates not only pathogenic organisms but also the protective normal flora. This so-called "selective pressure" results in colonization with bacteria that are resistant to the original therapy. The result has been an increase over the past two decades in antibiotic resistance among common bacterial causes of outpatient infections. Several studies have demonstrated that a substantial portion of the antibiotics prescribed in the outpatient setting are given for viral illnesses or bacterial diseases where the benefit of antibacterial therapy is marginal. The reasons for prescribing antibiotics in these situations are related to medical and social factors. Physicians should be familiar with the clinical situations in which they should provide antibiotics and those in which they may safely be withheld. Physicians should understand the motivations of patients who are seeking antibiotics and provide education, empathy and alternative treatments.
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance was once confined primarily to hospitals but is becoming increasingly prevalent in family practice settings, making daily therapeutic decisions more challenging. Recent reports of pediatric deaths and illnesses in communities in the United States have raised concerns about the implications and future of antibiotic resistance. Because 20 percent to 50 percent of antibiotic prescriptions in community settings are believed to be unnecessary, primary care physicians must adjust their prescribing behaviors to ensure that the crisis does not worsen. Clinicians should not accommodate patient demands for unnecessary antibiotics and should take steps to educate patients about the prudent use of these drugs. Prescriptions for targeted-spectrum antibiotics, when appropriate, can help preserve the normal susceptible flora. Antimicrobials intended for the treatment of bacterial infections should not be used to manage viral illnesses. Local resistance trends may be used to guide prescribing decisions.
ABSTRACT: While the choices available for the management of gram-positive, drug-resistant bacterial infections are becoming limited, antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly problematic because of the widespread overuse of antibiotics. Linezolid is a synthetic antibiotic belonging to a new class of antimicrobials called the oxazolidinones. Linezolid disrupts bacterial growth by inhibiting the initiation process of protein synthesis—a mechanism of action that is unique to this class of drugs. It is well absorbed with high bioavailability that allows conversion to oral therapy as soon as the patient is clinically stable. It has been approved for certain gram-positive infections including certain drug-resistant enterococcus, staphylococcus, and pneumococcus strains. It is generally well tolerated, with myelosuppression being the most serious adverse effect. As a nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, caution is recommended when used with adrenergic or serotonergic agents (e.g., tyramine, dopamine, pseudoephedrine, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Judicious use of this medication should help physicians treat patients with multidrug-resistant infections.
Should We Prescribe Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Principles of Appropriate Antibiotic Use: Part I. Acute Respiratory Tract Infections - Practice Guidelines
Protecting Consumers by Safeguarding Animal Health - FDA Perspective