Items in AFP with MESH term: Dyspareunia
ABSTRACT: Dyspareunia is genital pain associated with sexual intercourse. Although this condition has historically been defined by psychologic theories, the current treatment approach favors an integrated pain model. Identification of the initiating and promulgating factors is essential to reaching a successful diagnosis. The differential diagnoses include vaginismus, inadequate lubrication, atrophy and vulvodynia (vulvar vestibulitis). Less common etiologies are endometriosis, pelvic congestion, adhesions or infections, and adnexal pathology. Urethral disorders, cystitis and interstitial cystitis may also cause painful intercourse. The location of the pain may be described as entry or deep. Vulvodynia, atrophy, inadequate lubrication and vaginismus are associated with painful entry. Deep pain occurs with the other conditions previously noted. The physical examination may reproduce the pain, such as localized pain with vulvar vestibulitis, when the vagina is touched with a cotton swab. The involuntary spasm of vaginismus may be noted with insertion of an examining finger or speculum. Palpation of the lateral vaginal walls, uterus, adnexa and urethral structures helps identify the cause. An understanding of the present organic etiology must be integrated with an appreciation of the ongoing psychologic factors and negative expectations and attitudes that perpetuate the pain cycle.
ABSTRACT: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome affects more than 1 million persons in the United States, but the cause remains unknown. Most patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are women with symptoms of suprapubic pelvic and/or genital area pain, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It is important to exclude other conditions such as infections. Tests and tools commonly used to diagnose interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome include specific questionnaires developed to assess the condition, the potassium sensitivity test, the anesthetic bladder challenge, and cystoscopy with hydrodistension. Treatment options include oral medications, intravesical instillations, and dietary changes and supplements. Oral medications include pentosan polysulfate sodium, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and immune modulators. Intravesical medications include dimethyl sulfoxide, pentosan polysulfate sodium, and heparin. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is the only oral therapy and dimethyl sulfoxide is the only intravesical therapy with U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. To date, clinical trials of individual therapies have been limited in size, quality, and duration of follow-up. Studies of combination or multimodal therapies are lacking.