Items in AFP with MESH term: Elbow Joint
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the elbow is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedures for the elbow joint, medial and lateral epicondylitis, and olecranon bursitis are reviewed. Persistent pain related to inflammatory conditions responds well to injection in the region. Indications for elbow joint injection include osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroid injection is an accepted treatment option for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Olecranon bursa aspiration and injection are useful when that bursa is inflamed. The proper techniques, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up essential for effective outcomes are discussed.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians often are required to evaluate patients who present with acute skeletal trauma. The first of this two-part series discusses the features and evaluation of some commonly missed fractures and dislocations of the upper limb, excluding the hand. Dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint are infrequent and often missed. Clavicular fractures in adults usually are not hard to diagnose. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations represent about 10 percent of all dislocation injuries to the shoulder girdle. Forty percent of all dislocations occur at the glenohumeral joint. Scapular fractures are often a result of significant force. Multiple views should be obtained in adults with a suspected fracture of the elbow. Complications in fractures of the wrist are strongly related to the location of the fracture.
Evaluation of Overuse Elbow Injuries - Article
ABSTRACT: The evaluation of elbow pain can be challenging because of the complexity of the joint and its central location in the upper extremity. Diagnosing the injury correctly requires an understanding of the anatomy of the elbow, which includes three articulations, two ligament complexes, four muscle groups and three major nerves. The history should be directed at pinpointing the location of symptoms and the activities that cause the patient's pain. It is important to identify the specific musculotendinous structures that are at risk for overuse or have been injured through overuse. Mechanical symptoms are indicative of intra-articular pathology, whereas neurologic symptoms are characteristic of nerve entrapment syndromes. Physical examination of the elbow and related structures should confirm the diagnosis. Only a minority of patients require diagnostic studies. Basic treatment principles are described by the acronym PRICEMM: protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation, medication and modalities (physical therapy). Surgical consultation is warranted in selected patients.