ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Family physicians commonly care for patients with serious mental illness. Patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders have more comorbid medical conditions and higher mortality rates than patients without serious mental illness. Many medications prescribed for serious mental illness have significant metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects. Patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics should receive preventive counseling and treatment for obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. First- and second-generation antipsychotics have been associated with QT prolongation. Many common medications can interact with antipsychotics, increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Drug interactions can also lead to increased adverse effects, increased or decreased drug levels, toxicity, or treatment failure. Physicians should carefully consider the risks and benefits of second-generation antipsychotic medications, and patient care should be coordinated between primary care physicians and mental health professionals to prevent serious adverse effects.
Listening for Signals - Close-ups
ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family Physicians endorses and accepts this guideline as its policy. Early recognition and prompt initiation of reperfusion therapy remains the cornerstone of management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Aspirin should be given to symptomatic patients. Beta blockers should be used cautiously in the acute setting because they may increase the risk of cardiogenic shock and death. The combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated in patients who have had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A stepped care approach to analgesia for musculoskeletal pain in patients with coronary heart disease is provided. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase mortality risk and should be avoided. Primary prevention is important to reduce the burden of heart disease. Secondary prevention interventions are critically important to prevent recurrent events in patients who survive.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians frequently encounter patients with symptoms that could be related to cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly atrial fibrillation or supraventricular tachycardias. The initial management of atrial fibrillation includes ventricular rate control to provide adequate cardiac output. In patients with severely depressed cardiac output and recent-onset atrial fibrillation, immediate electrical cardioversion is the treatment of choice. Hemodynamically stable patients with atrial fibrillation for more than two days or for an unknown period should be assessed for the presence of atrial thrombi. If thrombi are detected on transesophageal echocardiography, anticoagulation with warfarin for a minimum of 21 days is recommended before electrical cardioversion is attempted. Patients with other supraventricular arrhythmias may be treated with adenosine, a calcium channel blocker, or a short-acting beta blocker to disrupt reentrant pathways. When initial medications are ineffective, radiofrequency ablation of ectopic sites is an increasingly popular treatment option.
ABSTRACT: The American College of Radiology has developed appropriateness criteria for a number of clinical conditions and procedures. Criteria are available on imaging tests used in the evaluation of acute chest pain--suspected myocardial ischemia. Imaging tests for a suspected cardiac etiology include transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, radionuclide perfusion imaging, radionuclide ventriculography, radionuclide infarct avid imaging, and positron emission tomography. If the cardiac ischemic work-up is negative or indeterminate, applicable tests include chest radiography; conventional, multidetector, and electron beam computed tomography; and magnetic resonance imaging. A summary of the criteria, with the advantages and limitations of each test, is presented in this article.
Heparins for Unstable Angina and Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction - Cochrane for Clinicians
Stimulants, ADHD, and the Heart - Editorials
All Is Not Well... - Photo Quiz
Early Invasive Therapy or Conservative Management for Unstable Angina or NSTEMI? - Cochrane for Clinicians