ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Dysmenorrhea - Article
ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absence in adolescent girls and a common problem in women of reproductive age. Risk factors for dysmenorrhea include nulliparity, heavy menstrual flow, smoking, and depression. Empiric therapy can be initiated based on a typical history of painful menses and a negative physical examination. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the initial therapy of choice in patients with presumptive primary dysmenorrhea. Oral contraceptives and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate also may be considered. If pain relief is insufficient, prolonged-cycle oral contraceptives or intravaginal use of oral contraceptive pills can be considered. In women who do not desire hormonal contraception, there is some evidence of benefit with the use of topical heat; the Japanese herbal remedy toki-shakuyaku-san; thiamine, vitamin E, and fish oil supplements; a low-fat vegetarian diet; and acupressure. If dysmenorrhea remains uncontrolled with any of these approaches, pelvic ultrasonography should be performed and referral for laparoscopy should be considered to rule out secondary causes of dysmenorrhea. In patients with severe refractory primary dysmenorrhea, additional safe alternatives for women who want to conceive include transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, acupuncture, nifedipine, and terbutaline. Otherwise, the use of danazol or leuprolide may be considered and, rarely, hysterectomy. The effectiveness of surgical interruption of the pelvic nerve pathways has not been established.
ABSTRACT: Signs and symptoms of endometriosis are nonspecific, and an acceptably accurate noninvasive diagnostic test has yet to be reported. Serum markers do not provide adequate diagnostic accuracy. The preferred method for diagnosis of endometriosis is surgical visual inspection of pelvic organs with histologic confirmation. Such diagnosis requires an experienced surgeon because the varied appearance of the disease allows less-obvious lesions to be overlooked. Empiric use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen is a reasonable symptomatic treatment, but the effectiveness of these agents has not been well-studied. Oral contraceptive pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and intrauterine levonorgestrel are relatively effective for pain relief. Danazol and various gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues also are effective but may have significant side effects. There is limited evidence that surgical ablation of endometriotic deposits may decrease pain and increase fertility rates in women with endometriosis. Presacral neurectomy is particularly beneficial in women with midline pelvic pain. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy definitively treat pain from endometriosis at 10 years in 90 percent of patients.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a progressive disease affecting 5 to 10 percent of women. It can cause dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, low back pain and infertility. A definitive diagnosis can be made only by means of laparoscopy. Medical treatment designed to interfere with ovulation generally provides effective pain relief, but the recurrence rate following cessation of therapy is high, and this type of treatment will not resolve infertility. Surgical treatment improves pregnancy rates and is the preferred initial treatment for infertility caused by endometriosis. Surgery also appears to provide better long-term pain relief than medical treatment. Bilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy are treatment options for patients with intractable pain, if childbearing is no longer desired.
The Challenge of Unexplained Symptoms - Close-ups
Pain in the Right Lower Quadrant - Photo Quiz
Cutaneous Abdominal Nodule After Cesarean Delivery - Photo Quiz
ACOG Issues Recommendations for the Management of Endometriosis - Practice Guidelines
ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, which affects up to 10 percent of reproductive-aged women, is the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. It is more common in women with pelvic pain or infertility (25 to 40 percent and 70 to 90 percent, respectively). Some women with endometriosis are asymptomatic, whereas others present with symptoms such as debilitating pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and decreased fertility. Diagnosis of endometriosis in primary care is predominantly clinical. Initial treatment includes common agents used for primary dysmenorrhea, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combination estrogen/progestin contraceptives, or progestin-only contraceptives. There is some evidence that these agents are helpful and have few adverse effects. Referral to a gynecologist is necessary if symptoms persist or the patient is unable to become pregnant. Laparoscopy is commonly used to confirm the diagnosis before additional treatments are pursued. Further treatments include gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, danazol, or surgical removal of ectopic endometrial tissue. These interventions may control symptoms more effectively than initial treatments, but they can have significant adverse effects and limits on duration of therapy.