Items in AFP with MESH term: Erythrocytes
'Common' Uncommon Anemias - Article
ABSTRACT: Of the uncommon anemias, "common" types include the anemia of renal disease, thalassemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and the anemia of chronic disease. These conditions may be suggested by the clinical presentation, laboratory test values and peripheral blood smear, or by failure of the anemia to respond to iron supplements or nutrient replacement. The principal cause of the anemia of renal disease is a decreased production of red blood cells related to a relative deficiency of erythropoietin. When treatment is required, erythropoietin is administered, often with iron supplementation. In the anemia of chronic disease, impaired iron transport decreases red blood cell production. Treatment is predominantly directed at the underlying condition. Since iron stores are usually normal, iron administration is not beneficial. Thalassemia minor results from a congenital abnormality of hemoglobin synthesis. The disorder may masquerade as mild iron deficiency anemia, but iron therapy and transfusions are often not indicated. In the myelodysplastic syndrome, blood cell components fail to mature, and the condition may progress to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The rate of progression depends on the subtype of myelodysplasia, but the leukemia is usually resistant to therapy.
Normocytic Anemia - Article
ABSTRACT: Anemia is a common problem that is often discovered on routine laboratory tests. Its prevalence increases with age, reaching 44 percent in men older than 85 years. Normocytic anemia is the most frequently encountered type of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease, the most common normocytic anemia, is found in 6 percent of adult patients hospitalized by family physicians. The goals of evaluation and management are to make an accurate and efficient diagnosis, avoid unnecessary testing, correct underlying treatable causes and ameliorate symptoms when necessary. The evaluation begins with a thorough history and a careful physical examination. Basic diagnostic studies include the red blood cell distribution width, corrected reticulocyte index and peripheral blood smear; further testing is guided by the results of these studies. Treatment should be directed at correcting the underlying cause of the anemia. A recent advance in treatment is the use of recombinant human erythropoietin.