ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease typically manifests as heartburn and regurgitation, but it may also present with atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, including asthma, chronic cough, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic sore throat, dental erosions, and noncardiac chest pain. Diagnosing atypical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease is often a challenge because heartburn and regurgitation may be absent, making it difficult to prove a cause-and-effect relationship. Upper endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring are insensitive and not useful for many patients as initial diagnostic modalities for evaluation of atypical symptoms. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, aggressive acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors twice daily before meals for three to four months is the standard treatment, although some studies have failed to show a significant benefit in symptomatic improvement. If these symptoms improve or resolve, patients may step down to a minimal dose of antisecretory therapy over the following three to six months. Surgical intervention via Nissen fundoplication is an option for patients who are unresponsive to aggressive antisecretory therapy. However, long-term studies have shown that some patients still require antisecretory therapy and are more likely to develop dysphagia, rectal flatulence, and the inability to belch or vomit.
Barrett's Esophagus - Article
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition commonly managed in the primary care setting. Patients with GERD may develop reflux esophagitis as the esophagus repeatedly is exposed to acidic gastric contents. Over time, untreated reflux esophagitis may lead to chronic complications such as esophageal stricture or the development of Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic process that typically involves the distal esophagus. Its presence is suspected by endoscopic evaluation of the esophagus, but the diagnosis is confirmed by histologic analysis of endoscopically biopsied tissue. Risk factors for Barrett's esophagus include GERD, white or Hispanic race, male sex, advancing age, smoking, and obesity. Although Barrett's esophagus rarely progresses to adenocarcinoma, optimal management is a matter of debate. Current treatment guidelines include relieving GERD symptoms with medical or surgical measures (similar to the treatment of GERD that is not associated with Barrett's esophagus) and surveillance endoscopy. Guidelines for surveillance endoscopy have been published; however, no studies have verified that any specific treatment or management strategy has decreased the rate of mortality from adenocarcinoma.
Screening for Barrett's Esophagus - Editorials