ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Hospital admission for congestive heart failure is extremely common and quite expensive, although it is frequently preventable. New drugs and therapies have been reported to reduce admissions, decrease morbidity and mortality, and improve the quality of life for these patients. Patients with an ejection fraction less than 40 percent (decreased systolic function) should be treated with medication to improve symptoms and prevent progression of heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a mainstay of treatment in patients who can tolerate them; in patients who cannot take these drugs, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents offer an alternative. Patients with New York Heart Association class II or III heart failure should also receive a beta blocker (metoprolol, carvedilol or bisoprolol). Recent research has shown that treatment with spironolactone improves mortality and hospital readmission rates. An exercise program should also be recommended for all patients with heart failure unless their condition is unstable.
ABSTRACT: Regular exercise provides a myriad of health benefits in older adults, including improvements in blood pressure, diabetes, lipid profile, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and neurocognitive function. Regular physical activity is also associated with decreased mortality and age-related morbidity in older adults. Despite this, up to 75 percent of older Americans are insufficiently active to achieve these health benefits. Few contraindications to exercise exist and almost all older persons can benefit from additional physical activity. The exercise prescription consists of three components: aerobic exercise, strength training, and balance and flexibility. Physicians play a key role in motivating older patients and advising them regarding their physical limitations and/or comorbidities. Motivating patients to begin exercise is best achieved by focusing on individual patient goals, concerns, and barriers to exercise. Strategies include the "stages of change" model, individualized behavioral therapy, and an active lifestyle. To increase long-term compliance, the exercise prescription should be straightforward, fun, and geared toward a patient's individual health needs, beliefs, and goals.
ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common but controversial disorder. While no large randomized controlled trials show that screening for and treating gestational diabetes affect perinatal outcomes, multiple studies have documented an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with the disorder. Data on perinatal mortality, however, are inconsistent. In some prospective studies, treatment of gestational diabetes has resulted in a decrease in shoulder dystocia (a frequently discussed perinatal outcome), but cesarean delivery has not been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. Patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes should monitor their blood glucose levels, exercise, and undergo nutrition counseling for the purpose of maintaining normoglycemia. The commonly accepted treatment goal is to maintain a fasting capillary blood glucose level of less than 95 to 105 mg per dL (5.3 to 5.8 mmol per L); the ambiguity (i.e., the range) is due to imperfect data. The postprandial treatment goal should be a capillary blood glucose level of less than 140 mg per dL (7.8 mmol per L) at one hour and less than 120 mg per dL (6.7 mmol per L) at two hours. Patients not meeting these goals with dietary changes alone should begin insulin therapy. In patients with well-controlled diabetes, there is no need to pursue delivery before 40 weeks of gestation. In patients who require insulin or have other comorbid conditions, it is appropriate to begin antenatal screening with nonstress tests and an amniotic fluid index at 32 weeks of gestation.
Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - Article
ABSTRACT: The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the U.S. population. The National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III has identified metabolic syndrome as an indication for vigorous lifestyle intervention. Effective interventions include diet, exercise, and judicious use of pharmacologic agents to address specific risk factors. Weight loss significantly improves all aspects of metabolic syndrome. Increasing physical activity and decreasing caloric intake by reducing portion sizes will improve metabolic syndrome abnormalities, even in the absence of weight loss. Specific dietary changes that are appropriate for addressing different aspects of the syndrome include reducing saturated fat intake to lower insulin resistance, reducing sodium intake to lower blood pressure, and reducing high-glycemic-index carbohydrate intake to lower triglyceride levels. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with metabolic syndrome. Family physicians can be more effective in helping patients to change their lifestyle behaviors by assessing each patient for the presence of specific risk factors, clearly communicating these risk factors to patients, identifying appropriate interventions to address specific risks, and assisting patients in identifying barriers to behavior change.
ABSTRACT: Iliotibial band syndrome is a common knee injury. The most common symptom is lateral knee pain caused by inflammation of the distal portion of the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that crosses the hip joint and extends distally to insert on the patella, tibia, and biceps femoris tendon. In some athletes, repetitive flexion and extension of the knee causes the distal iliotibial band to become irritated and inflamed resulting in diffuse lateral knee pain. Iliotibial band syndrome can cause significant morbidity and lead to cessation of exercise. Although iliotibial band syndrome is easily diagnosed clinically, it can be extremely challenging to treat. Treatment requires active patient participation and compliance with activity modification. Most patients respond to conservative treatment involving stretching of the iliotibial band, strengthening of the gluteus medius, and altering training regimens. Corticosteroid injections should be considered if visible swelling or pain with ambulation persists for more than three days after initiating treatment. A small percentage of patients are refractory to conservative treatment and may require surgical release of the iliotibial band.
Treatment of Edema - Article
ABSTRACT: Edema is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. The kidneys play a key role in regulating extracellular fluid volume by adjusting sodium and water excretion. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability, and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. A systematic approach is warranted to determine the underlying diagnosis. Treatment includes sodium restriction, diuretic use, and appropriate management of the underlying disorder. Leg elevation may be helpful in some patients. Loop diuretics often are used alone or in combination. In patients with New York Heart Association class III and IV congestive heart failure, spironolactone has been found to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. In patients with cirrhosis, ascites is treated with paracentesis and spironolactone. Dihydropyridine-induced edema can be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Lymphedema occurs when a protein-rich fluid accumulates in the interstitium. Compression garments and range-of-motion exercises may be helpful in patients with this condition.
Fibromyalgia - Article
ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia is an idiopathic, chronic, nonarticular pain syndrome with generalized tender points. It is a multisystem disease characterized by sleep disturbance, fatigue, headache, morning stiffness, paresthesias, and anxiety. Nearly 2 percent of the general population in the United States suffers from fibromyalgia, with females of middle age being at increased risk. The diagnosis is primarily based on the presence of widespread pain for a period of at least three months and the presence of 11 tender points among 18 specific anatomic sites. There are certain comorbid conditions that overlap with, and also may be confused with, fibromyalgia. Recently there has been improved recognition and understanding of fibromyalgia. Although there are no guidelines for treatment, there is evidence that a multidimensional approach with patient education, cognitive behavior therapy, exercise, physical therapy, and pharmacologic therapy can be effective.
ABSTRACT: Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with "red flag" findings associated with an increased risk of cauda equina syndrome, cancer, infection, or fracture. These patients also require closer follow-up and, in some cases, urgent referral to a surgeon. In patients with nonspecific mechanical low back pain, imaging can be delayed for at least four to six weeks, which usually allows the pain to improve. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, heat therapy, physical therapy, and advice to stay active. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term benefits compared with sham therapy but not when compared with conventional treatments. Evidence for the benefit of acupuncture is conflicting, with higher-quality trials showing no benefit. Patient education should focus on the natural history of the back pain, its overall good prognosis, and recommendations for effective treatments.
ABSTRACT: Back pain is fairly prevalent in healthy children and adolescents. When children or adolescents seek medical care for back pain, it is highly likely that underlying pathology will be identified. Common causes of back pain include nonspecific pain or muscle strain, herniated disk, spondylolysis, scoliosis, and Scheuermann's kyphosis. Less common causes include tumor, infection, and sickle cell crisis. If nonspecific back pain is suspected, treatment may include home-based exercise, physical therapy, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If the history and physical examination suggest underlying pathology, radiography, complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a C-reactive protein measurement should be performed. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, or bone scanning may be needed depending on the suspected cause. It is generally accepted that the following factors warrant immediate evaluation: patient age younger than four years, persistent symptoms, self-imposed activity limitations, systemic symptoms, increasing discomfort, persistent night-time pain, and neurologic symptoms.
The Physical Therapy Prescription - Article
ABSTRACT: Numerous guidelines recommend physical therapy for the management of musculoskeletal conditions. However, specific recommendations are lacking concerning which exercises and adjunct modalities to use. Physical therapists use various techniques to reduce pain and improve mobility and flexibility. There is some evidence that specific exercises performed with the instruction of physical therapists improve outcomes in patients with low back pain. For most modalities, evidence of effectiveness is variable and controlled trials are lacking. Multiple modalities may be used to treat one clinical condition; decisions for the treatment of an individual patient depend on the expertise of the therapist, the equipment available, and the desire of the attending physician. A physical therapy prescription should include the diagnosis; type, frequency, and duration of the prescribed therapy; goals of therapy; and safety precautions.