ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Sports have become increasingly popular and account for numerous eye injuries each year. The sports that most commonly cause eye injuries, in order of decreasing frequency, are basketball, water sports, baseball, and racquet sports. Sports are classified as low risk, high risk, and very high risk. Sports-related eye injuries are blunt, penetrating, and radiation injuries. The use of eye protection has helped to reduce the number and severity of eye injuries. The American Society for Testing and Materials has established performance standards for selected eyewear. Consultation with an eye care professional is recommended for fitting protective eyewear. The functionally one-eyed, or monocular, athlete should take extra precautions. A preparticipation eye examination is helpful in identifying persons who may be at increased risk for eye injury. Sports-related eye injuries should be evaluated on site with an adequate examination of the eye and adnexa. Minor eye injuries may be treated on site. The team physician must know which injuries require immediate referral to an ophthalmologist and the guidelines for returning an athlete to competition.
Management of Corneal Abrasions - Article
ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasions result from cutting, scratching, or abrading the thin, protective, clear coat of the exposed anterior portion of the ocular epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and a gritty feeling. Symptoms can be worsened by exposure to light, blinking, and rubbing the injured surface against the inside of the eyelid. Visualizing the cornea under cobalt-blue filtered light after the application of fluorescein can confirm the diagnosis. Most corneal abrasions heal in 24 to 72 hours and rarely progress to corneal erosion or infection. Although eye patching traditionally has been recommended in the treatment of corneal abrasions, multiple well-designed studies show that patching does not help and may hinder healing. Topical mydriatics also are not beneficial. Initial treatment should be symptomatic, consisting of foreign body removal and analgesia with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral analgesics; topical antibiotics also may be used. Corneal abrasions can be avoided through the use of protective eyewear.
Work-Related Eye Injuries and Illnesses - Article
ABSTRACT: More than 65,000 work-related eye injuries and illnesses, causing significant morbidity and disability, are reported in the United States annually. A well-equipped eye tray includes fluorescein dye, materials for irrigation and foreign body removal, a short-acting mydriatic agent, and topical anesthetics and antibiotics. The tray should be prepared in advance in case of an eye injury. Eye patching does not improve cornea reepithelialization or discomfort from corneal abrasions. Blunt trauma to the eye from a heavy object can cause a blow-out fracture. Sudden eye pain after working with a chisel, hammer, grinding wheel, or saw suggests a penetrating globe injury. Chemical eye burns require immediate copious irrigation. Nontraumatic causes of ocular illness are underreported; work-related allergic conjunctivitis increasingly has been recognized among food handlers and agriculture workers who are exposed to common spices, fruits, and vegetables. The patient's history of eye injury guides the diagnosis. Primary prevention and patient counseling on proper eye protection is essential because over 90 percent of injuries can be avoided with the use of eye protection. As laser use increases in industry and medical settings, adequate personal protection is needed to prevent cataracts. Outdoor workers exposed to significant ultraviolet rays need sun protection and safety counseling to prevent age-related macular degeneration. Contact lenses do not provide eye protection, and physicians should be familiar with guidelines for the use of contacts in the workplace.
ABSTRACT: Early and accurate detection of eye disorders in children can present a challenge for family physicians. Visual acuity screening, preferably performed before four years of age, is essential for diagnosing amblyopia. Cover testing may disclose small-angle or intermittent strabismus. Leukocoria, which is detected with an ophthalmoscope, may indicate retinoblastoma or cataract. Children with glaucoma may have light sensitivity and enlargement of the cornea, and conjunctivitis that does not respond quickly to treatment may reflect more serious ocular inflammation. Children with serious eye injuries often present to the primary care physician. Nystagmus and many systemic conditions are associated with specific eye findings.
ABSTRACT: Red eye is the cardinal sign of ocular inflammation. The condition is usually benign and can be managed by primary care physicians. Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis. Signs and symptoms of red eye include eye discharge, redness, pain, photophobia, itching, and visual changes. Generally, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting conditions, and serious complications are rare. Because there is no specific diagnostic test to differentiate viral from bacterial conjunctivitis, most cases are treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Allergies or irritants also may cause conjunctivitis. The cause of red eye can be diagnosed through a detailed patient history and careful eye examination, and treatment is based on the underlying etiology. Recognizing the need for emergent referral to an ophthalmologist is key in the primary care management of red eye. Referral is necessary when severe pain is not relieved with topical anesthetics; topical steroids are needed; or the patient has vision loss, copious purulent discharge, corneal involvement, traumatic eye injury, recent ocular surgery, distorted pupil, herpes infection, or recurrent infections.
ABSTRACT: Corneal abrasions are commonly encountered in primary care. Patients typically present with a history of trauma and symptoms of foreign body sensation, tearing, and sensitivity to light. History and physical examination should exclude serious causes of eye pain, including penetrating injury, infective keratitis, and corneal ulcers. After fluorescein staining of the cornea, an abrasion will appear yellow under normal light and green in cobalt blue light. Physicians should carefully examine for foreign bodies and remove them, if present. The goals of treatment include pain control, prevention of infection, and healing. Pain relief may be achieved with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral analgesics. Evidence does not support the use of topical cycloplegics for uncomplicated corneal abrasions. Patching is not recommended because it does not improve pain and has the potential to delay healing. Although evidence is lacking, topical antibiotics are commonly prescribed to prevent bacterial superinfection. Contact lens–related abrasions should be treated with antipseudomonal topical antibiotics. Follow-up may not be necessary for patients with small (4 mm or less), uncomplicated abrasions; normal vision; and resolving symptoms. All other patients should be reevaluated in 24 hours. Referral is indicated for any patient with symptoms that do not improve or that worsen, a corneal infiltrate or ulcer, significant vision loss, or a penetrating eye injury.