ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: A practice guideline for the management of febrile infants and children younger than three years of age sparked controversy when it was published in 1993. Surveys indicate that many office-based physicians do not agree with recommendations for venipuncture and bladder catheterization in nontoxic febrile children, and that many employ watchful waiting rather than empiric antibiotic therapy. Surveys of parents note a preference for less testing and treatment. More aggressive management may be appropriate in febrile infants younger than three months old; however, criteria have been proposed to identify infants older than one month who are at low risk for serious bacterial infection. Because of widespread vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae infection, Streptococcus pneumoniae has become the cause of most cases of bacteremia. The risk of serious bacterial infection is greater in younger children and in those with higher temperatures and white blood cell counts. Controversy persists regarding the age, temperature and white blood cell count values that serve as indications for further evaluation or empiric antibiotic therapy.
Fever in the Returned Traveler - Article
ABSTRACT: With the rising popularity of international travel to exotic locations, family physicians are encountering more febrile patients who recently have visited tropical countries. In the majority of cases, the fever is caused by a common illness such as tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. In addition to the usual medical history, physicians should obtain a careful travel history, a description of accommodations, information about pretravel immunizations or chemoprophylaxis during travel, a sexual history, and a list of exposures and risk factors. The extent and type of lymphadenopathy are important diagnostic clues. Altered mental status with fever is an alarm symptom and requires urgent evaluation and treatment. Malaria must be considered in patients who traveled even briefly within an endemic area. Enteric fever is treated with fluoroquinolones, dengue fever with supportive measures only, leptospirosis with penicillin or doxycycline, and rickettsial infections with doxycycline.
Fever, Leg Pain, and a Rash - Photo Quiz
Rash and Fever in an Ill-Appearing Child - Photo Quiz
Predicting Pneumonia in Adults with Respiratory Illness - Point-of-Care Guides
Aspirin Use in Children for Fever or Viral Syndromes - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Clinical Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children - Point-of-Care Guides
ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis for febrile patients with a rash is extensive. Diseases that present with fever and rash are usually classified according to the morphology of the primary lesion. Rashes can be categorized as maculopapular (centrally and peripherally distributed), petechial, diffusely erythematous with desquamation, vesiculobullous-pustular and nodular. Potential causes include viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, rickettsiae, medications and rheumatologic diseases. A thorough history and a careful physical examination are essential to making a correct diagnosis. Although laboratory studies can be useful in confirming the diagnosis, test results often are not available immediately. Because the severity of these illnesses can vary from minor (roseola) to life-threatening (meningococcemia), the family physician must make prompt management decisions regarding empiric therapy. Hospitalization, isolation and antimicrobial therapy often must be considered when a patient presents with fever and a rash.