ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Fishhook Removal - Article
ABSTRACT: Fishing is a common recreational sport. While serious injuries are uncommon, penetrating tissue trauma involving fishhooks frequently occurs. Most of these injuries are minor and can be treated in the office without difficulty. All fishhook injuries require careful evaluation of surrounding tissue before attempting removal. Ocular involvement should prompt immediate referral to an ophthalmologist. The four most common techniques of fishhook removal and injury management are described in this article. The choice of the method for fishhook removal depends on the type of fishhook embedded, the location of the injury and the depth of tissue penetration. Occasionally, more than one removal technique may be required for removal of the fishhook. The retrograde technique is the simplest but least successful removal method, while the traditional advance and cut method is most effective for removing fishhooks that are embedded close to the skin surface. The advance and cut technique is almost always successful, even for removal of large fishhooks. The string-yank method can be used in the field and can often be performed without anesthesia. Wound care following successful removal involves extraction of foreign bodies from the wound and the application of a simple dressing. Prophylactic antibiotics are generally not indicated. Tetanus status should be assessed and toxoid administered if needed.
Splinter Removal - Article
ABSTRACT: Splinter injuries are common, but larger and deeper splinters are often difficult and painful to remove at home. These splinters often present as a foreign body embedded in the superficial or subcutaneous soft tissues. Whenever possible, reactive objects like wood, thorns, spines, and vegetative material should be removed immediately, before inflammation or infection occurs. Superficial horizontal splinters are generally visible on inspection or easily palpated. A horizontal splinter is exposed completely by incising the skin over the length of the long axis of the splinter, and removed by lifting it out with forceps. A subungual splinter may be removed by cutting out a V-shaped piece of the nail. The point of the V is at the proximal tip of the splinter, which is grasped and removed, taking particular care not to push the splinter further into the nail bed. Removal of an elusive splinter can be challenging and may require the use of imaging modalities for better localization. Deeper splinters, especially those close to important structures such as nerves, tendons, blood vessels, or vital organs, should be referred for removal.
Foreign Body Ingestion in Children - Article
ABSTRACT: Because many patients who have swallowed foreign bodies are asymptomatic, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion. The majority of ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously, but serious complications, such as bowel perforation and obstruction, can occur. Foreign bodies lodged in the esophagus should be removed endoscopically, but some small, blunt objects may be pulled out using a Foley catheter or pushed into the stomach using bougienage [corrected] Once they are past the esophagus, large or sharp foreign bodies should be removed if reachable by endoscope. Small, smooth objects and all objects that have passed the duodenal sweep should be managed conservatively by radiographic surveillance and inspection of stool. Endoscopic or surgical intervention is indicated if significant symptoms develop or if the object fails to progress through the gastrointestinal tract.
Management of Foreign Bodies in the Skin - Article
ABSTRACT: Although puncture wounds are common, retained foreign bodies are not. Wounds with a foreign body sensation should be evaluated. The presence of wood or vegetative material, graphite or other pigmenting materials, and pain is an indication for foreign body removal. Radiography may be used to locate foreign bodies for removal, and ultrasonography can be helpful for localizing radiolucent foreign bodies. It is wise to set a time limit for exploration and to have a plan for further evaluation or referral. Injuries at high risk of infection include organic foreign bodies or dirty wounds. These should be treated with plain water irrigation and complete removal of retained fragments. In most cases, antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated. If a patient presents with an infected wound, the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered. Tetanus prophylaxis is necessary if there is no knowledge or documentation of tetanus immunization within 10 years, including tetanus immune globulin for the person with a dirty wound whose history of tetanus toxoid doses is unknown or incomplete.
ABSTRACT: Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat are occasionally seen in family medicine, usually in children. The most common foreign bodies are food, plastic toys, and small household items. Diagnosis is often delayed because the causative event is usually unobserved, the symptoms are nonspecific, and patients often are misdiagnosed initially. Most ear and nose foreign bodies can be removed by a skilled physician in the office with minimal risk of complications. Common removal methods include use of forceps, water irrigation, and suction catheter. Pharyngeal or tracheal foreign bodies are medical emergencies requiring surgical consultation. Radiography results are often normal. Flexible or rigid endoscopy usually is required to confirm the diagnosis and to remove the foreign body. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion for foreign bodies in children with unexplained upper airway symptoms. It is important to understand the anatomy and the indications for subspecialist referral. The evidence is inadequate to make strong recommendations for specific removal techniques.
Lateral Knee Pain after Aerobic Exercise - Photo Quiz
A Nonhealing Ulcer of the Hand - Photo Quiz