ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Fractures of the toe are one of the most common lower extremity fractures diagnosed by family physicians. Toe fractures most frequently are caused by a crushing injury or axial force such as stubbing a toe. Joint hyperextension and stress fractures are less common. Most patients have point tenderness at the fracture site or pain with gentle axial loading of the digit. Anteroposterior and oblique radiographs generally are most useful for identifying fractures, determining displacement, and evaluating adjacent phalanges and digits. Referral is indicated in patients with circulatory compromise, open fractures, significant soft tissue injury, fracture-dislocations, displaced intra-articular fractures, or fractures of the first toe that are unstable or involve more than 25 percent of the joint surface. Most children with fractures of the physis should be referred, but children with selected nondisplaced Salter-Harris types I and II fractures may be treated by family physicians. Stable, nondisplaced toe fractures should be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe to limit joint movement. Displaced fractures of the lesser toes should be treated with reduction and buddy taping. Patients with displaced fractures of the first toe often require referral for stabilization of the reduction.
ABSTRACT: Most ankle injuries are straightforward ligamentous injuries. However, the clinical presentation of subtle fractures can be similar to that of ankle sprains, and these fractures are frequently missed on initial examination. Fractures of the talar dome may be medial or lateral, and they are usually the result of inversion injuries, although medial injuries may be atraumatic. Lateral talar process fractures are characterized by point tenderness over the lateral process. Posterior talar process fractures are often associated with tenderness to deep palpation anterior to the Achilles tendon over the posterolateral talus, and plantar flexion may exacerbate the pain. These fractures can often be managed nonsurgically with nonweight-bearing status and a short leg cast worn for approximately four weeks. Delays in treatment can result in long-term disability and surgery. Computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imaging may be required because these fractures are difficult to detect on plain films.
ABSTRACT: Hip fractures cause significant morbidity and are associated with increased mortality. Women experience 80% of hip fractures, and the average age of persons who have a hip fracture is 80 years. Most hip fractures are associated with a fall, although other risk factors include decreased bone mineral density, reduced level of activity, and chronic medication use. Patients with hip fractures have pain in the groin and are unable to bear weight on the affected extremity. During the physical examination, displaced fractures present with external rotation and abduction, and the leg will appear shortened. Plain radiography with cross-table lateral view of the hip and anteroposterior view of the pelvis usually confirms the diagnosis. If an occult hip fracture is suspected and plain radiography is normal, magnetic resonance imaging should be ordered. Most fractures are treated surgically unless the patient has significant comorbidities or reduced life expectancy. The consulting orthopedic surgeon will choose the surgical procedure. Patients should receive prophylactic antibiotics, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, before surgery. In addition, patients should receive thromboembolic prophylaxis, preferably with low-molecular-weight heparin. Rehabilitation is critical to long-term recovery. Unless contraindicated, bisphosphonate therapy should be used to reduce the risk of another hip fracture. Some patients may benefit from a fall-prevention assessment.