ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Proton Pump Inhibitors: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Since their introduction in the late 1980s, proton pump inhibitors have demonstrated gastric acid suppression superior to that of histamine H2-receptor blockers. Proton pump inhibitors have enabled improved treatment of various acid-peptic disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastropathy. Proton pump inhibitors have minimal side effects and few significant drug interactions, and they are generally considered safe for long-term treatment. The proton pump inhibitors omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and the recently approved esomeprazole appear to have similar efficacy.
Diagnosing Night Sweats - Article
ABSTRACT: Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.
ABSTRACT: The primary treatment goals in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease are relief of symptoms, prevention of symptom relapse, healing of erosive esophagitis, and prevention of complications of esophagitis. In patients with reflux esophagitis, treatment is directed at acid suppression through the use of lifestyle modifications (e.g., elevating the head of the bed, modifying the size and composition of meals) and pharmacologic agents (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist [H2RA] taken on demand or a proton pump inhibitor IPPI] taken 30 to 60 minutes before the first meal of the day). The preferred empiric approach is step-up therapy (treat initially with an H2RA for eight weeks; if symptoms do not improve, change to a PPI) or step-down therapy (treat initially with a PPI; then titrate to the lowest effective medication type and dosage). In patients with erosive esophagitis identified on endoscopy, a PPI is the initial treatment of choice. Diagnostic testing should be reserved for patients who exhibit warning signs (i.e., weight loss, dysphagia, gastrointestinal bleeding) and patients who are at risk for complications of esophagitis (i.e., esophageal stricture formation, Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma). Antireflux surgery, including open and laparoscopic versions of Nissen fundoplication, is an alternative treatment in patients who have chronic reflux with recalcitrant symptoms. Newer endoscopic modalities, including the Stretta and endocinch procedures, are less invasive and have fewer complications than antireflux surgery, but response rates are lower.
Update on Helicobacter pylori Treatment - Article
ABSTRACT: One half of the world's population has Helicobacter pylori infection, with an estimated prevalence of 30 percent in North America. Although it is unclear whether eradication of H. pylori improves symptoms in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, there is strong evidence that eradication of this bacteria improves healing and reduces the risk of recurrence or rebleeding in patients with duodenal or gastric ulcer. A "test-and-treat" strategy is recommended for most patients with undifferentiated dyspepsia. With this approach, patients undergo a noninvasive test for H. pylori infection and, if positive, are treated with eradication therapy. This strategy reduces the need for antisecretory medications as well as the number of endoscopies. The urea breath test or stool antigen test is recommended. Until recently, the recommended duration of therapy for H. pylori eradication was 10 to 14 days. Shorter courses of treatment (i.e., one to five days) have demonstrated eradication rates of 89 to 95 percent with the potential for greater patient compliance. A one-day treatment course consists of bismuth subsalicylate, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, all given four times with a one-time dose of lansoprazole. In children with documented H. pylori infection, however, all regimens should continue to be prescribed for seven to 14 days until short-course treatment is studied and its effectiveness has been established in this population.
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease typically manifests as heartburn and regurgitation, but it may also present with atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, including asthma, chronic cough, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic sore throat, dental erosions, and noncardiac chest pain. Diagnosing atypical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease is often a challenge because heartburn and regurgitation may be absent, making it difficult to prove a cause-and-effect relationship. Upper endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring are insensitive and not useful for many patients as initial diagnostic modalities for evaluation of atypical symptoms. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have atypical or extraesophageal symptoms, aggressive acid suppression using proton pump inhibitors twice daily before meals for three to four months is the standard treatment, although some studies have failed to show a significant benefit in symptomatic improvement. If these symptoms improve or resolve, patients may step down to a minimal dose of antisecretory therapy over the following three to six months. Surgical intervention via Nissen fundoplication is an option for patients who are unresponsive to aggressive antisecretory therapy. However, long-term studies have shown that some patients still require antisecretory therapy and are more likely to develop dysphagia, rectal flatulence, and the inability to belch or vomit.
ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (systemic scleroderma) is a chronic connective tissue disease of unknown etiology that causes widespread microvascular damage and excessive deposition of collagen in the skin and internal organs. Raynaud phenomenon and scleroderma (hardening of the skin) are hallmarks of the disease. The typical patient is a young or middle-age woman with a history of Raynaud phenomenon who presents with skin induration and internal organ dysfunction. Clinical evaluation and laboratory testing, along with pulmonary function testing, Doppler echocardiography, and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, establish the diagnosis and detect visceral involvement. Patients with systemic sclerosis can be classified into two distinct clinical subsets with different patterns of skin and internal organ involvement, autoantibody production, and survival. Prognosis is determined by the degree of internal organ involvement. Although no disease-modifying therapy has been proven effective, complications of systemic sclerosis are treatable, and interventions for organ-specific manifestations have improved substantially. Medications (e.g., calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-II receptor blockers for Raynaud phenomenon, appropriate treatments for gastroesophageal reflux disease) and lifestyle modifications can help prevent complications, such as digital ulcers and Barrett esophagus. Endothelin-1 receptor blockers and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors improve pulmonary arterial hypertension. The risk of renal damage from scleroderma renal crisis can be lessened by early detection, prompt initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, and avoidance of high-dose corticosteroids. Optimal patient care includes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to promptly and effectively recognize, evaluate, and manage complications and limit end-organ dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common, self-limited process in infants that usually resolves by six to 12 months of age. Effective, conservative management involves thickened feedings, positional treatment, and parental reassurance. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a less common, more serious pathologic process that usually warrants medical management and diagnostic evaluation. Differential diagnosis includes upper gastrointestinal tract disorders; cow's milk allergy; and metabolic, infectious, renal, and central nervous system diseases. Pharmacologic management of GERD includes a prokinetic agent such as metoclopramide or cisapride and a histamine-receptor type 2 antagonist such as cimetidine or ranitidine when esophagitis is suspected. Although recent studies have supported the cautious use of cisapride in childhood GERD, the drug is currently not routinely available in the United States.
Choosing One PPI Treatment Over Another - AFP Journal Club
Evaluation of Epigastric Discomfort and Management of Dyspepsia and GERD - Practice Guidelines