Items in AFP with MESH term: Gastroesophageal Reflux
Comparison of Short-Term Treatments for GERD - Cochrane for Clinicians
Treating GER in Children Younger Than Two Years - Cochrane for Clinicians
Psychological Interventions for Noncardiac Chest Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians
Barrett's Esophagus - Article
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition commonly managed in the primary care setting. Patients with GERD may develop reflux esophagitis as the esophagus repeatedly is exposed to acidic gastric contents. Over time, untreated reflux esophagitis may lead to chronic complications such as esophageal stricture or the development of Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic process that typically involves the distal esophagus. Its presence is suspected by endoscopic evaluation of the esophagus, but the diagnosis is confirmed by histologic analysis of endoscopically biopsied tissue. Risk factors for Barrett's esophagus include GERD, white or Hispanic race, male sex, advancing age, smoking, and obesity. Although Barrett's esophagus rarely progresses to adenocarcinoma, optimal management is a matter of debate. Current treatment guidelines include relieving GERD symptoms with medical or surgical measures (similar to the treatment of GERD that is not associated with Barrett's esophagus) and surveillance endoscopy. Guidelines for surveillance endoscopy have been published; however, no studies have verified that any specific treatment or management strategy has decreased the rate of mortality from adenocarcinoma.
Screening for Barrett's Esophagus - Editorials
Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Point-of-Care Guides
Medical Management vs. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Cochrane for Clinicians
Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease - Article
ABSTRACT: Careful examination of the oral cavity may reveal findings indicative of an underlying systemic condition, and allow for early diagnosis and treatment. Examination should include evaluation for mucosal changes, periodontal inflammation and bleeding, and general condition of the teeth. Oral findings of anemia may include mucosal pallor, atrophic glossitis, and candidiasis. Oral ulceration may be found in patients with lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, or Crohn disease. Additional oral manifestations of lupus erythematosus may include honeycomb plaques (silvery white, scarred plaques); raised keratotic plaques (ver- rucous lupus erythematosus); and nonspecific erythema, purpura, petechiae, and cheilitis. Additional oral findings in patients with Crohn disease may include diffuse mucosal swelling, cobblestone mucosa, and localized mucogingivitis. Diffuse melanin pigmentation may be an early manifestation of Addison disease. Severe periodontal inflammation or bleeding should prompt investigation of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, thrombocytopenia, and leukemia. In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, bulimia, or anorexia, exposure of tooth enamel to acidic gastric contents may cause irreversible dental erosion. Severe erosion may require dental restorative treatment. In patients with pemphigus vulgaris, thrombocytopenia, or Crohn disease, oral changes may be the first sign of disease.
ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic, relapsing condition with associated morbidity and an adverse impact on quality of life. The disease is common, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 25 to 35 percent in the U.S. population. GERD can usually be diagnosed based on the clinical presentation alone. In some patients, however, the diagnosis may require endoscopy and, rarely, ambulatory pH monitoring. Management includes lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic therapy; refractory disease requires surgery. The therapeutic goals are to control symptoms, heal esophagitis and maintain remission so that morbidity is decreased and quality of life is improved.