ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Joint and Soft Tissue Injection - Article
ABSTRACT: Injection techniques are helpful for diagnosis and therapy in a wide variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diagnostic indications include the aspiration of fluid for analysis and the assessment of pain relief and increased range of motion as a diagnostic tool. Therapeutic indications include the delivery of local anesthetics for pain relief and the delivery of corticosteroids for suppression of inflammation. Side effects are few, but may include tendon rupture, infection, steroid flare, hypopigmentation, and soft tissue atrophy. Injection technique requires knowledge of anatomy of the targeted area and a thorough understanding of the agents used. In this overview, the indications, contraindications, potential side effects, timing, proper technique, necessary materials, pharmaceuticals used and their actions, and post-procedure care of patients are presented.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the wrist and hand region is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain's tenosynovitis, osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint, wrist ganglion cysts, and digital flexor tenosynovitis (trigger finger) are reviewed. Indications for carpal tunnel syndrome injection include median nerve compression resulting from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, repetitive use injury, and other traumatic injuries to the area. For the first carpometacarpal joint, injection may be used to treat pain secondary to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Pain associated with de Quervain's tenosynovitis is treated effectively by therapeutic injection. If complicated by pain or paresthesias, wrist ganglion cysts respond to aspiration and injection. Painful limitation of motion occurring in trigger fingers of patients with diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis also improves with injection. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
Alopecia in Women - Article
ABSTRACT: Alopecia can be divided into disorders in which the hair follicle is normal but the cycling of hair growth is abnormal and disorders in which the hair follicle is damaged. Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss in women. Other disorders include alopecia areata, telogen effluvium, cicatricial alopecia, and traumatic alopecias. The diagnosis is usually based on a thorough history and a focused physical examination. In some patients, selected laboratory tests or punch biopsy may be necessary. Topically administered minoxidil is labeled for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women. Corticosteroids and other agents are typically used in women with alopecia areata. Telogen effluvium is often a self-limited disorder. Because alopecia can be devastating to women, management should include an assessment for psychologic effects.
ABSTRACT: The shoulder is the site of multiple injuries and inflammatory conditions that lend themselves to diagnostic and therapeutic injection. Joint injection should be considered after other therapeutic interventions such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and activity-modification have been tried. Indications for glenohumeral joint injection include osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. For the acromioclavicular joint, injection may be used for diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis and distal clavicular osteolysis. Subacromial injections are useful for a range of conditions including adhesive capsulitis, subdeltoid bursitis, impingement syndrome, and rotator cuff tendinosis. Scapulothoracic injections are reserved for inflammation of the involved bursa. Persistent pain related to inflammatory conditions of the long head of the biceps responds well to injection in the region. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
Osteoporosis in Men - Article
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 percent of hip fractures occur in men, and one in eight men older than 50 years will have an osteoporotic fracture. Because of their greater peak bone mass, men usually present with hip, vertebral body, or distal wrist fractures 10 years later than women. Hip fractures in men, however, result in a 31 percent mortality rate at one year after fracture versus a rate of 17 percent in women. Major risk factors for osteoporosis in men are glucocorticoid use for longer than six months, osteopenia seen on plain radiographs, a history of nontraumatic fracture, hypogonadism, and advancing age. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide (recombinant parathyhroid hormone) have recently been approved for use in men and should be considered along with supplemental calcium and vitamin D. Increased awareness by physicians of risk factors for male osteoporosis--and early diagnosis and treatment--are needed to decrease the morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the hip and knee regions is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedure for the greater trochanteric bursa, the knee joint, the pes anserine bursa, the iliotibial band, and the prepatellar bursa is reviewed. Indications for greater trochanteric bursa injection include acute and chronic inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, repetitive use, and other traumatic injuries to the area. For the knee joint, aspiration may be performed to aid in the diagnosis of an unexplained effusion and relieve discomfort caused by an effusion. Injection of the knee can be performed for viscosupplementation or corticosteroid therapy. Indications for corticosteroid injection include advanced osteoarthritis and other inflammatory arthritides, such as gout or calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Swelling and tenderness of pes anserine or prepatellar bursae can be relieved with aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Persistent pain and disability from iliotibial band syndrome respond to local injection therapy. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Article
ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome affects approximately 3 percent of adults in the United States. Pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve are the classic symptoms. While Tinel's sign and a positive Phalen's maneuver are classic clinical signs of the syndrome, hypalgesia and weak thumb abduction are more predictive of abnormal nerve conduction studies. Conservative treatment options include splinting the wrist in a neutral position and ultrasound therapy. Orally administered corticosteroids can be effective for short-term management (two to four weeks), but local corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms for a longer period. A recent systematic review demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pyridoxine, and diuretics are no more effective than placebo in relieving the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. If symptoms are refractory to conservative measures or if nerve conduction studies show severe entrapment, open or endoscopic carpal tunnel release may be necessary. Carpal tunnel syndrome should be treated conservatively in pregnant women because spontaneous postpartum resolution is common.
ABSTRACT: Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis are common, closely related vasculitic conditions that almost exclusively occur in patients older than 50 years. They may be manifestations of the same underlying disease and often coexist. Patients with polymyalgia rheumatica usually present with acute onset of stiffness and pain in the shoulder and pelvic musculature, which may be accompanied by fever, malaise, and weight loss. If untreated, polymyalgia rheumatica may result in significant disability. Giant cell arteritis may manifest as visual loss or diplopia, abnormalities of the temporal artery such as tenderness or decreased pulsation, jaw claudication, and new-onset headaches. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and temporal artery biopsy help make the diagnosis. Giant cell arteritis requires urgent diagnosis because without treatment it may lead to irreversible blindness. Patients with either condition also may have nonspecific symptoms. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for both conditions, with higher doses required for treatment of giant cell arteritis. Duration of corticosteroid therapy can be five years or longer before complete clinical remission is achieved. Monitoring for corticosteroid-associated side effects such as osteoporosis and diabetes, as well as for relapses and flare-ups, is key to chronic management. The prognosis for either condition, if treated, is good.
Gout: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Arthritis caused by gout (i.e., gouty arthritis) accounts for millions of outpatient visits annually, and the prevalence is increasing. Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in tissues leading to arthritis, soft tissue masses (i.e., tophi), nephrolithiasis, and urate nephropathy. The biologic precursor to gout is elevated serum uric acid levels (i.e., hyperuricemia). Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is common and usually does not progress to clinical gout. Acute gout most often presents as attacks of pain, erythema, and swelling of one or a few joints in the lower extremities. The diagnosis is confirmed if monosodium urate crystals are present in synovial fluid. First-line therapy for acute gout is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids, depending on comorbidities; colchicine is second-line therapy. After the first gout attack, modifiable risk factors (e.g., high-purine diet, alcohol use, obesity, diuretic therapy) should be addressed. Urate-lowering therapy for gout is initiated after multiple attacks or after the development of tophi or urate nephrolithiasis. Allopurinol is the most common therapy for chronic gout. Uricosuric agents are alternative therapies in patients with preserved renal function and no history of nephrolithiasis. During urate-lowering therapy, the dose should be titrated upward until the serum uric acid level is less than 6 mg per dL (355 micromol per L). When initiating urate-lowering therapy, concurrent prophylactic therapy with low-dose colchicine for three to six months may reduce flare-ups.
ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common problem among patients presenting to primary care. This condition has multiple individual and combined treatment regimens. The goals of treatment are to improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, sleep quality, and survival; and to reduce dyspnea, nocturnal symptoms, exacerbations, use of rescue medications, and hospitalizations. All patients benefit from bronchodilator medications as needed. Long-acting inhaled anticholinergics are probably more beneficial than short-acting formulations. Use of inhaled corticosteroids might benefit patients with mild COPD who have an inflammatory component or significant reversibility on spirometry. Patients with moderate to severe disease benefit from the use of long-acting inhaled anticholinergics, inhaled corticosteroids, and possibly a long-acting beta2 agonist or mucolytics. For rescue therapy, short-acting beta2 agonists or combination anticholinergics with a short-acting beta2 agonist should be used. Inhaled corticosteroids should be considered before initiating a long-acting beta2 agonist. Caution should be used if a long-acting beta2 agonist is discontinued before initiation of an inhaled corticosteroid because this may precipitate exacerbations. Evidence to support the use of mucolytics, oral theophylline, and oral corticosteroids is limited. Patients with severe hypoxemia (i.e., arterial oxygen pressure less than 55 mm Hg or oxygen saturation less than 88 percent) should be given continuous oxygen.