ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Adverse reactions to contrast agents range from a mild inconvenience, such as itching associated with hives, to a life-threatening emergency. Renal toxicity is a well known adverse reaction associated with the use of intravenous contrast material. Other forms of adverse reactions include delayed allergic reactions, anaphylactic reactions, and local tissue damage. Previous allergic reactions to contrast material, asthma, and allergies are factors associated with an increased risk of developing an adverse reaction. Pretreatment of patients who have such risk factors with a corticosteroid and diphenhydramine decreases the chance of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, renal failure, or a possible life-threatening emergency. Awareness of the different types of risk factors and prescreening for their presence allows for early recognition and prompt treatment. Prophylactic treatment before administration of contrast material can prevent potential adverse reactions. If such reactions do occur, prompt recognition allows them to be treated immediately. Using the smallest amount of contrast material possible and low-molecular, nonionic agents also decreases the relative risk of reactions. Renal insufficiency induced by contrast material may be prevented by ensuring adequate hydration and discontinuing other nephrotoxic medications before the procedure. Low-osmolar, nonionic agents are helpful in patients with known conditions associated with adverse reactions.
ABSTRACT: The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recently updated its guidelines for the management of asthma. An evidence-based approach was used to examine several key issues regarding appropriate medical therapy for patients with asthma. The updated guidelines have clarified these issues and should alter the way physicians prescribe asthma medications. Chronic inhaled corticosteroid use is safe in adults and children, and inhaled corticosteroids are recommended as first-line therapy in adults and children with persistent asthma, even if the disease is mild. Other medications, such as cromolyn, theophylline, and leukotriene modifiers, now are considered alternative treatments and should have a more limited role in the management of persistent asthma. The addition of a long-acting beta2 agonist to an inhaled corticosteroid is superior to all other combinations as well as to higher dosages of inhaled corticosteroids alone. Combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting beta2 agonist is the preferred treatment for adults and children with moderate to severe asthma. Antibiotic therapy offers no additional benefit in patients with asthma exacerbations.
The 'Crashing Asthmatic' - Article
ABSTRACT: Asthma is a common chronic disorder, with a prevalence of 8 to 10 percent in the U.S. population. From 5 to 10 percent of patients have severe disease that does not respond to typical therapeutic interventions. To prevent life-threatening sequelae, it is important to identify patients with severe asthma who will require aggressive management of exacerbations. Objective monitoring of pulmonary status using a peak flow meter is essential in patients with persistent asthma. Patients who have a history of fragmented health care, intubation, or hospitalization for asthma and those with mental illness or psychosocial stressors are at increased risk for severe asthma. Oxygen, beta2 agonists, and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstays of acute asthma therapy. Inhaled anticholinergic medications provide additional bronchodilation. In patients who deteriorate despite usual therapeutic efforts, evidence supports individualized use of parenteral beta2 agonists, magnesium sulfate, aminophylline, leukotriene inhibitors, or positive pressure mask ventilation before intubation.
NAEPP Updates Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma - Practice Guidelines
Linear Lesions on the Face - Photo Quiz
Glucocorticoids for Treatment of Croup - Cochrane for Clinicians
Intra-articular Corticosteroid for Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for Clinicians
Long-Acting Beta2 Agonists as Steroid-Sparing Agents - Cochrane for Clinicians
Acute Red Eye - Photo Quiz