ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Americans spend more on natural remedies for osteoarthritis than for any other medical condition. In treating osteoarthritis, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, two of the molecular building blocks found in articular cartilage, are the most commonly used alternative supplements. In randomized trials of variable quality, these compounds show efficacy in reducing symptoms, but neither has been shown to arrest progression of the disease or regenerate damaged cartilage. Although few clinical trials on S-adenosylmethionine exist, preliminary evidence indicates that it relieves pain to a degree similar to that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but with fewer side effects. Clinical trials of dimethyl sulfoxide offer conflicting results. Neither ginger nor cetyl myristoleate has proven clinical usefulness.
Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis - Article
ABSTRACT: A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and interventional studies have led to lower treatment targets for type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes), including a glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7 percent or less and a before-meal blood glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L). New oral medications make these targets easier to achieve, especially in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Acarbose, metformin, miglitol, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone help the patient's own insulin control glucose levels and allow early treatment with little risk of hypoglycemia. Two new long-acting sulfonylureas (glimepiride and extended-release glipizide) and a short-acting sulfonylurea-like agent (repaglinide) simply and reliably augment the patient's insulin supply. Combinations of agents have additive therapeutic effects and can restore glucose control when a single agent is no longer successful. Oral therapy for early type 2 diabetes can be relatively inexpensive, and evidence of its cost-effectiveness is accumulating.
Glucosamine - Article
ABSTRACT: Glucosamine is one of the most popular dietary supplements sold in the United States. Most clinical trials have focused on its use in osteoarthritis of the knee. The reported adverse effects have been relatively well studied and are generally uncommon and minor. No significant supplement-drug interactions involving glucosamine have been reported. The National Institutes of Health-sponsored Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial, the largest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving the supplement, still has not confirmed whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Despite conflicting results in studies, there is no clear evidence to recommend against its use. If physicians have patients who wish to try glucosamine, it would be reasonable to support a 60-day trial of glucosamine sulfate, especially in those at high risk of secondary effects from other accepted treatments. The decision to continue therapy can then be left to patients on an individual basis, while the physician monitors for possible adverse effects. Glucosamine should be used with caution in patients who have shellfish allergies or asthma, and in those taking diabetes medications or warfarin.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Glucosamine Treatment for Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians
Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis - Article
ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended. Opioids are being used more often in patients with moderate to severe pain or diminished quality of life, but patients receiving these drugs must be carefully selected and monitored because of the inherent adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are effective, but evidence for injection of hyaluronic acid is mixed. Arthroscopic surgery has been shown to have no benefit in knee osteoarthritis. Total joint arthroplasty of the knee should be considered when conservative symptomatic management is ineffective.