Items in AFP with MESH term: Head
ABSTRACT: Although local anesthesia usually is used in surgical procedures, field or nerve blocks can provide more effective anesthesia in some situations. In a field block, local anesthetic is infiltrated around the border of the surgical field, leaving the operative area undisturbed. In field blocks, epinephrine may be added to the anesthetic to enhance vasoconstriction and prolong the duration of anesthesia. In a nerve block, anesthetic is injected directly adjacent to the nerve supplying the surgical field. A review of regional anatomy and the location of nerves and other important structures is essential before administering the injection. Systemic toxicity is rare with regional anesthesia and can be prevented by using the smallest dose possible and aspirating before the injection. Supraorbital, supratrochlear, infraorbital, and mental nerve blocks can provide adequate anesthesia in procedures on parts of the face. Field block also may be considered when operating on the ear or lips.
ABSTRACT: A comprehensive newborn examination involves a systematic inspection. A Ballard score uses physical and neurologic characteristics to assess gestational age. Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of the sutures, and 20% of children with this condition have a genetic mutation or syndrome. The red reflex assessment is normal if there is symmetry in both eyes, without opacities, white spots, or dark spots. If the red reflex findings are abnormal or the patient has a family history of pertinent eye disorders, consultation with an ophthalmologist is warranted. Newborns with low-set ears should be evaluated for a genetic condition. Renal ultrasonography should be performed only in patients with isolated ear anomalies, such as preauricular pits or cup ears, if they are accompanied by other malformations or significant family history. If ankyloglossia is detected, a frenotomy may be considered if it impacts breastfeeding. The neck should be examined for full range of motion because uncorrected torticollis can lead to plagiocephaly and ear misalignment. Proper auscultation is crucial for evaluation of the bronchopulmonary circulation with close observation for signs of respiratory distress, including tachypnea, nasal flaring, grunting, retractions, and cyanosis. Benign murmurs are often present in the first hours of life. Pulse oximetry should be performed in a systematic fashion before discharge.