Items in AFP with MESH term: Head and Neck Neoplasms
The Adult Neck Mass - Article
ABSTRACT: Family physicians frequently encounter neck masses in adult patients. A careful medical history should be obtained, and a thorough physical examination should be performed. The patient's age and the location, size, and duration of the mass are important pieces of information. Inflammatory and infectious causes of neck masses, such as cervical adenitis and cat-scratch disease, are common in young adults. Congenital masses, such as branchial anomalies and thyroglossal duct cysts, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Neoplasms (benign and malignant) are more likely to be present in older adults. Fine-needle aspiration and biopsy and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning are the best techniques for evaluating these masses. An otolaryngology consultation for endoscopy and possible excisional biopsy should be obtained when a neck mass persists beyond four to six weeks after a single course of a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
ABSTRACT: Head and neck manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are among the most common complications of this disease. Some of these manifestations are the initial signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and others are associated with full-blown AIDS. Otologic manifestations include otitis externa, otitis media, Kaposi's sarcoma and sensorineural hearing loss. Nasal and oral manifestations of AIDS are more common than otologic manifestations and range from infections, caused by both opportunistic and nonopportunistic organisms, to malignancies. We address common manifestations and current treatment recommendations.
ABSTRACT: Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. Inflammatory neck masses can be the result of reactive lymphadenopathy, infectious lymphadenitis (viral, staphylococcal, and mycobacterial infections; cat-scratch disease), or Kawasaki disease. Common benign neoplastic lesions include pilomatrixomas, lipomas, fibromas, neurofibromas, and salivary gland tumors. Although rare in children, malignant lesions occurring in the neck include lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Workup for a neck mass may include a complete blood count; purified protein derivative test for tuberculosis; and measurement of titers for Epstein-Barr virus, cat-scratch disease, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and toxoplasmosis if the history raises suspicion for any of these conditions. Ultrasonography is the preferred imaging study for a developmental or palpable mass. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast media is recommended for evaluating a malignancy or a suspected retropharyngeal or deep neck abscess. Congenital neck masses are excised to prevent potential growth and secondary infection of the lesion. Antibiotic therapy for suspected bacterial lymphadenitis should target Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococcus. Lack of response to initial antibiotics should prompt consideration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, referral for possible incision and drainage, or further workup. If malignancy is suspected (accompanying type B symptoms; hard, firm, or rubbery consistency; fixed mass; supraclavicular mass; lymph node larger than 2 cm in diameter; persistent enlargement for more than two weeks; no decrease in size after four to six weeks; absence of inflammation; ulceration; failure to respond to antibiotic therapy; or a thyroid mass), the patient should be referred to a head and neck surgeon for urgent evaluation and possible biopsy.