Items in AFP with MESH term: Craniocerebral Trauma
ABSTRACT: The routine newborn assessment should include an examination for size, macrocephaly or microcephaly, changes in skin color, signs of birth trauma, malformations, evidence of respiratory distress, level of arousal, posture, tone, presence of spontaneous movements, and symmetry of movements. A newborn with one anatomic malformation should be evaluated for associated anomalies. Total and direct bilirubin levels should be measured in newborns with jaundice, and a complete blood count should be obtained in those with pallor or a ruddy complexion. Neurosurgical consultation is necessary in infants with craniosynostosis accompanied by restricted brain growth or hydrocephalus, cephaloceles, or exophytic scalp nodules. Neck masses can be identified by their location and include vascular malformations, abnormal lymphatic tissue, teratomas, and dermoid cysts. Most facial nerve palsies resolve spontaneously. Conjunctivitis is relatively common in newborns. Infants with chest abnormalities may need to be evaluated for Poland's syndrome or Turner's syndrome. Murmurs in the immediate newborn period are usually innocent and represent a transition from fetal to neonatal circulation. Because cyanosis is primarily secondary to respiratory or cardiac causes, affected newborns should be evaluated expeditiously, with the involvement of a cardiologist or neonatologist.
ABSTRACT: Injuries to the head and neck are common in sports. Sideline physicians must be attentive and prepared with an organized approach to detect and manage these injuries. Because head and neck injuries often occur simultaneously, the sideline physician can combine the head and neck evaluations. When assessing a conscious athlete, the physician initially evaluates the neck for spinal cord injury and determines whether the athlete can be moved safely to the sideline for further evaluation. This decision is made using an on-field assessment of the athlete's peripheral sensation and strength, as well as neck tenderness and range of motion. If these evaluations are normal, axial loading and Spurling testing can be performed. Once the neck has been determined to be normal, the athlete can be assisted to the sideline for assessment of concussion symptoms and severity. This assessment should include evaluations of the athlete's reported symptoms, recently acquired memory, and postural stability. Injured athletes should be monitored with serial examinations, and those with severe, prolonged, or progressive findings require transport to an emergency department for further evaluation.
Computed Tomography After Minor Head Injury - Point-of-Care Guides
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