ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Initial Management of Breastfeeding - Article
ABSTRACT: Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.
ABSTRACT: Family physicians must proactively address the sexual health of their patients. Effective sexual health care should address wellness considerations in addition to infections, contraception, and sexual dysfunction. However, physicians consistently underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns in their patients. By allocating time to discuss sexual health during office visits, high-risk sexual behaviors that can cause sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, and unhealthy sexual decisions may be reduced. Developing a routine way to elicit the patient's sexual history that avoids judgmental attitudes and asks the patient for permission to discuss sexual function will make it easier to gather the necessary information. Successful integration of sexual health care into family practice can decrease morbidity and mortality, and enhance well-being and longevity in the patient.
ABSTRACT: Foot ulcers are a significant complication of diabetes mellitus and often precede lower-extremity amputation. The most frequent underlying etiologies are neuropathy, trauma, deformity, high plantar pressures, and peripheral arterial disease. Thorough and systematic evaluation and categorization of foot ulcers help guide appropriate treatment. The Wagner and University of Texas systems are the ones most frequently used for classification of foot ulcers, and the stage is indicative of prognosis. Pressure relief using total contact casts, removable cast walkers, or "half shoes" is the mainstay of initial treatment. Sharp debridement and management of underlying infection and ischemia are also critical in the care of foot ulcers. Prompt and aggressive treatment of diabetic foot ulcers can often prevent exacerbation of the problem and eliminate the potential for amputation. The aim of therapy should be early intervention to allow prompt healing of the lesion and prevent recurrence once it is healed. Multidisciplinary management programs that focus on prevention, education, regular foot examinations, aggressive intervention, and optimal use of therapeutic footwear have demonstrated significant reductions in the incidence of lower-extremity amputations.
ABSTRACT: The postpartum period (typically the first six weeks after delivery) may underscore physical and emotional health issues in new mothers. A structured approach to the postpartum office visit ensures that relevant conditions and concerns are discussed and appropriately addressed. Common medical complications during this period include persistent postpartum bleeding, endometritis, urinary incontinence, and thyroid disorders. Breastfeeding education and behavioral counseling may increase breastfeeding continuance. Postpartum depression can cause significant morbidity for the mother and baby; a postnatal depression screening tool may assist in diagnosing depression-related conditions. Decreased libido can affect sexual functioning after a woman gives birth. Physicians should also discuss contraception with postpartum patients, even those who are breastfeeding. Progestin-only contraceptives are recommended for breastfeeding women. The lactational amenorrhea method may be a birth control option but requires strict criteria for effectiveness.
ABSTRACT: The problem of getting children to follow a treatment regimen is widespread and is frustrating for physicians. The extent to which any patient adheres to a medical regimen is an essential determinant of clinical success. Strategies to improve adherence in children include using simplified drug regimens (e.g., once-daily dosing), pleasant-tasting medicines, liquid or other nonpill formulations, regular phone contact between parents and physicians, reminders, information counseling, self-management plans, and other forms of individualized supervision or attention. Physicians also can encourage adherence by providing a dearly written explanation or patient information sheets that list generic and brand names, dosage, schedule, duration, and common side effects and practical ways of coping with them. Physicians, children, and parents should develop a mutually agreed-upon treatment plan. Having the child participate in devising the plan improves adherence.
Strategies for Breastfeeding Success - Article
ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding provides significant health benefits for infants and mothers. However, the United States continues to fall short of the breastfeeding goals set by the Healthy People 2010 initiative. The American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology have policy statements supporting breastfeeding that reflect recent advancements in understanding the mechanisms underlying the benefits of breastfeeding and in the clinical management of breastfeeding. Despite popular belief, there are few contraindications to breastfeeding. Providing maternal support and structured antenatal and postpartum breastfeeding education are the most effective means of achieving breastfeeding success. In addition, immediate skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant and early initiation of breastfeeding are shown to improve breastfeeding outcomes. When concerns about lactation arise during newborn visits, the infant must be carefully assessed for jaundice, weight loss, and signs of failure to thrive. If a work-up is required, parents should be supported in their decision to breastfeed. Certified lactation consultants can provide valuable support and education to patients. Physicians should educate working women who breastfeed about the availability of breast pumps and the proper storage of expressed breast milk. Physicians must be aware of their patients' lactation status when prescribing medications, as some may affect milk supply or be unsafe for breastfeeding infants. Through support and encouragement of breastfeeding, national breastfeeding goals can be met.
Geriatric Screening and Preventive Care - Article
ABSTRACT: Preventive health care decisions and recommendations become more complex as the population ages. The leading causes of death (i.e., heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory disease) among older adults mirror the actual causes of death (i.e., tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) among persons of all ages. Many aspects of mortality in older adults are modifiable through behavior change. Patients 65 years and older should be counseled on smoking cessation, diets rich in healthy fats, aerobic exercise, and strength training. Other types of preventive care include aspirin therapy; lipid management; and administration of tetanus and diphtheria, pneumococcal, and influenza vaccines. Although cancer is the second leading cause of death in patients 65 years and older, a survival benefit from cancer screening is not seen unless the patient's life expectancy exceeds five years. Therefore, it is best to review life expectancy, functionality, and comorbidities with older patients when making cancer screening recommendations. Other recommended screenings include abdominal aortic aneurysm for men 65 to 75 years of age, breast cancer for women 40 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years, and colorectal cancer for men and women 50 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years.
Changing Patient Health-Risk Behavior Requires New Investment in Primary Care - Graham Center Policy One-Pagers
ABSTRACT: Evidence supports the effectiveness of primary care interventions to improve nutrition, increase physical activity levels, reduce alcohol intake, and stop tobacco use. However, implementing these interventions requires considerable practice expense. If we hope to change behavior to reduce chronic illness, the way we pay for primary care services must be modified to incorporate these expenses.