Items in AFP with MESH term: Renal Dialysis

Rhabdomyolysis - Article

ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome resulting from the breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers with leakage of muscle contents into the circulation. The most common causes are crush injury, overexertion, alcohol abuse and certain medicines and toxic substances. Several inherited genetic disorders, such as McArdle's disease and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, are predisposing factors for the syndrome. Clinical features are often nonspecific, and tea-colored urine is usually the first clue to the presence of rhabdomyolysis. Screening may be performed with a urine dipstick in combination with urine microscopy. A positive urine myoglobin test provides supportive evidence. Multiple complications can occur and are classified as early or late. Early complications include severe hyperkalemia that causes cardiac arrhythmia and arrest. The most serious late complication is acute renal failure, which occurs in approximately 15 percent of patients with the syndrome. Early recognition of rhabdomyolysis and prompt management of complications are crucial to a successful outcome.


Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothermia - Article

ABSTRACT: Although hypothermia is most common in patients who are exposed to a cold environment, it can develop secondary to toxin exposure, metabolic derangements, infections, and dysfunction of the central nervous and endocrine systems. The clinical presentation of hypothermia includes a spectrum of symptoms and is grouped into the following three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. Management depends on the degree of hypothermia present. Treatment modalities range from noninvasive, passive external warming techniques (e.g., removal of cold, wet clothing; movement to a warm environment) to active external rewarming (e.g., insulation with warm blankets) to active core rewarming (e.g., warmed intravenous fluid infusions, heated humidified oxygen, body cavity lavage, and extracorporeal blood warming). Mild to moderate hypothermia is treated easily with supportive care in most clinical settings and has good patient outcomes. The treatment of severe hypothermia is more complex, and outcomes depend heavily on clinical resources. Prevention and recognition of atypical presentations are essential to reducing the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.


Management of Acute Renal Failure - Article

ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause of acute renal failure usually can be identified through an appropriate history, a physical examination, and selected laboratory tests. The initial laboratory evaluation should include urinalysis, a determination of the fractional excretion of sodium, a blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio, and a basic metabolic panel. Management includes correction of fluid and electrolyte levels; avoidance of nephrotoxins; and kidney replacement therapy, when appropriate. Several recent studies support the use of acetylcysteine for the prevention of acute renal failure in patients undergoing various procedures. The relative risk of serum creatinine elevation was 0.11 in patients undergoing radiocontrast-media procedures (absolute risk reduction: 19 percent) and 0.33 in patients undergoing coronary angiography (absolute risk reduction: 8 percent). In patients pretreated with sodium bicarbonate before radiocontrast-media procedures, the relative risk of serum creatinine elevation was 0.13 and the absolute risk reduction was 11.9 percent. Dopamine and diuretics have been shown to be ineffective in ameliorating the course of acute renal failure.


Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - Article

ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented by controlling blood sugar levels and blood pressure and by treating proteinuria. Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease often is overlooked in its earliest, most treatable stages. Guidelines from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommend estimating glomerular filtration rate and screening for albuminuria in patients with risk factors for chronic kidney disease, including diabetes, hypertension, systemic illnesses, age greater than 60 years, and family history of chronic kidney disease. The glomerular filtration rate, calculated by using a prediction equation, detects chronic kidney disease more accurately than does the serum creatinine level alone; the glomerular filtration rate also is used for disease staging. In most clinical situations, analysis of random urine samples to determine the albumin-creatinine or protein-creatinine ratio has replaced analysis of timed urine collections. When chronic kidney disease is detected, an attempt should be made to identify and treat the specific underlying condition(s). The KDOQI guidelines define major treatment goals for all patients with chronic kidney disease. These goals include slowing disease progression, detecting and treating complications, and managing cardiovascular risk factors. Primary care physicians have an important role in detecting chronic kidney disease early, in instituting measures to slow disease progression, and in providing timely referral to a nephrologist.


Treatment of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning - Article

ABSTRACT: Ingestion of ethylene glycol may be an important contributor in patients with metabolic acidosis of unknown cause and subsequent renal failure. Expeditious diagnosis and treatment will limit metabolic toxicity and decrease morbidity and mortality. Ethylene glycol poisoning should be suspected in an intoxicated patient with anion gap acidosis, hypocalcemia, urinary crystals, and nontoxic blood alcohol concentration. Fomepizole is a newer agent with a specific indication for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. Metabolic acidosis is resolved within three hours of initiating therapy. Initiation of fomepizole therapy before the serum creatinine concentration rises can minimize renal impairment. Compared with traditional ethanol treatment, advantages of fomepizole include lack of depression of the central nervous system and hypoglycemia, and easier maintenance of effective plasma levels.


Hypertension and Diabetes: Family Physicians' Pivotal Role - Editorials


Acute Renal Failure - Clinical Evidence Handbook


Skin Plaques in a Woman with Renal Disease - Photo Quiz


An AIDS Patient's Right to Refuse Life-Sustaining Treatment - Curbside Consultation


End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning - Article

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed safely, but the patient’s renal function must be considered when selecting a drug and when determining the dosage. Fentanyl and methadone are considered the safest opioids for use in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nonpain symptoms are common and affect quality of life. Phosphate binders, ondansetron, and naltrexone can be helpful for pruritus. Fatigue can be managed with treatment of anemia and optimization of dialysis, but persistent fatigue should prompt screening for depression. Ondansetron, metoclopramide, and haloperidol are effective for uremia-associated nausea. Nondialytic management may be preferable to dialysis initiation in older patients and in those with additional life-limiting illnesses, and may not significantly decrease life expectancy. Delaying dialysis initiation is also an option. Patients with end-stage renal disease should have advance directives, including documentation of situations in which they would no longer want dialysis.



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