Items in AFP with MESH term: Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated

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Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Rescue, Augmentation, and Replacement of Beta-Cell Function - Article

ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Indications for exogenous insulin therapy in patients with this condition include acute illness or surgery, pregnancy, glucose toxicity, contraindications to or failure to achieve goals with oral antidiabetic medications, and a need for flexible therapy. Augmentation therapy with basal insulin is useful if some beta-cell function remains. Replacement therapy with basal-bolus insulin is required for beta-cell exhaustion. Rescue therapy using replacement regimens for several weeks may reverse glucose toxicity. Replacement insulin therapy should mimic normal release patterns. Basal insulin, using long-acting insulins (i.e., neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], ultralente, glargine) is injected once or twice a day and continued on sick days. Bolus (or mealtime) insulin, using short-acting or rapid-acting insulins (i.e., regular, aspart, lispro) covers mealtime carbohydrates and corrects the current glucose level. The starting dose of 0.15 units per kg per day for augmentation or 0.5 units per kg per day for replacement can be increased several times as needed. About 50 to 60 percent of the total daily insulin requirement should be a basal type, and 40 to 50 percent should be a bolus type. The mealtime dose is the sum of the corrective dose plus the anticipated requirements for the meal and exercise. Adjustments should be made systematically, starting with the fasting, then the preprandial and, finally, the postprandial glucose levels. Basal therapy with glargine insulin provides similar to lower A1C levels with less hypoglycemia than NPH insulin. Insulin aspart and insulin lispro provide similar A1C levels and quality of life, but lower postprandial glucose levels than regular insulin.


Therapies for Diabetes: Pramlintide and Exenatide - Article

ABSTRACT: The American Diabetes Association currently recommends an A1C goal of less than 7 percent. However, many patients are unable to achieve this goal by using oral drug combinations or diet and exercise, leaving insulin as the only treatment option. In most cases, insulin is initiated later in therapy because of its inconvenience and adverse effects (e.g., weight gain, hypoglycemia, possible role in atherogenesis). Although insulin effectively helps patients attain glucose goals, the search for new agents continues. Two injectable agents, pramlintide and exenatide, were approved in 2005 for the treatment of diabetes. Pramlintide, indicated for use in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, is a synthetic analogue of human amylin that acts in conjunction with insulin to delay gastric emptying and inhibit the release of glucagon. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic, has multiple mechanisms for lowering glucose levels, including the enhancement of insulin secretion, and is indicated for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials have shown that both agents reduce, by a statistically significant degree, A1C levels (0.3 to 0.7 percent more than placebo), fasting plasma glucose levels, and body weight (3 to 5 lb [1.4 to 2.3 kg]). No studies have examined their effects on diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, or overall mortality. Pramlintide and exenatide may help make glycemic goals more attainable.


Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus: New Criteria - Article

ABSTRACT: New recommendations for the classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus include the preferred use of the terms "type 1" and "type 2" instead of "IDDM" and "NIDDM" to designate the two major types of diabetes mellitus; simplification of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus to two abnormal fasting plasma determinations; and a lower cutoff for fasting plasma glucose (126 mg per dL [7 mmol per L] or higher) to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. These changes provide an easier and more reliable means of diagnosing persons at risk of complications from hyperglycemia. Currently, only one half of the people who have diabetes mellitus have been diagnosed. Screening for diabetes mellitus should begin at 45 years of age and should be repeated every three years in persons without risk factors, and should begin earlier and be repeated more often in those with risk factors. Risk factors include obesity, first-degree relatives with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia or previous evidence of impaired glucose homeostasis. Earlier detection of diabetes mellitus may lead to tighter control of blood glucose levels and a reduction in the severity of complications associated with this disease.


Educational Guidelines for Achieving Tight Control and Minimizing Complications of Type 1 Diabetes - Article

ABSTRACT: Tight glucose control with intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) can delay the onset and slow the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Optimal blood glucose control is defined by a target glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7 percent, a preprandial glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L) and a bedtime glucose level of 100 to 140 mg per dL (5.6 to 7.8 mmol per L). This article provides guidelines to help family physicians teach patients with type 1 diabetes how to achieve tight glucose control to help minimize complications. Guidelines include maintaining blood glucose levels at near normal by taking doses of short-acting insulin throughout the day supplemented by a nighttime dose of intermediate-acting insulin, monitoring blood glucose levels frequently, following a prudent diet, exercising regularly and effectively managing hypoglycemia, as well as empowering patients to lead their control efforts and rigorously controlling other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Support from physicians, family members and friends is crucial to the success of a regimen of tight glucose control.


Are Long-acting Insulin Analogues Better Than Isophane Insulin? - Cochrane for Clinicians


A1C Testing in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries


Does Pioglitazone Benefit Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? - Cochrane for Clinicians


Low Glycemic Index Diets for the Management of Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians


Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis and Screening - Article

ABSTRACT: Based on etiology, diabetes is classified as type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of youth, and miscellaneous causes. The diagnosis is based on measurement of A1C level, fasting or random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define patients who are unlikely to have diabetes. Tests that may help establish the type of diabetes or the continued need for insulin include those reflective of beta cell function, such as C peptide levels, and markers of immune-mediated beta cell destruction (e.g., autoantibodies to islet cells, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase [IA-2a and IA-2ß]). Antibody testing is limited by availability, cost, and predictive value.


What a Patient's Numbers Don't Tell - The Last Word


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