ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: Postpartum hemorrhage is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Most postpartum hemorrhages are caused by uterine atony and occur in the immediate postpartum period. Expectant or physiologic management of the third stage of labor has been compared with active management in several studies. Active management involves administration of uterotonic medication after the delivery of the baby, early cord clamping and cutting, and controlled traction of the umbilical cord while awaiting placental separation and delivery. Good evidence shows that active management of the third stage of labor provides a better balance of benefits and harms and should be practiced routinely to decrease the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Oxytocin, ergot alkaloids, and prostaglandins have been compared, as have timing and route of administration of these uterotonic medications. Oxytocin is the uterotonic agent of choice; it can be administered as 10 units intramuscularly or as 20 units diluted in 500 mL normal saline as an intravenous bolus, and can safely and effectively be given to the mother with the delivery of the baby or after the delivery of the placenta.
ABSTRACT: Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or avoidable. Uterine atony is responsible for most cases and can be managed with uterine massage in conjunction with oxytocin, prostaglandins, and ergot alkaloids. Retained placenta is a less common cause and requires examination of the placenta, exploration of the uterine cavity, and manual removal of retained tissue. Rarely, an invasive placenta causes postpartum hemorrhage and may require surgical management. Traumatic causes include lacerations, uterine rupture, and uterine inversion. Coagulopathies require dotting factor replacement for the identified deficiency. Early recognition, systematic evaluation and treatment, and prompt fluid resuscitation minimize the potentially serious outcomes associated with postpartum hemorrhage.
Should Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor Be Routine? - Cochrane for Clinicians
ACOG Releases Report on Risk Factors, Causes and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - Special Medical Reports