ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
Hip Fractures in Adults - Article
ABSTRACT: Patients with hip fracture typically present to the emergency department or their physician's office after a fall. They are often unable to walk, and they may exhibit shortening and external rotation of the affected limb. Frequently, they have hip pain. In some instances, however, patients with hip fracture may complain only of vague pain in their buttocks, knees, thighs, groin, or back. Their ability to walk may be unaffected, and initial radiographic findings may be indeterminate. In these patients, additional studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging or bone scanning, may be necessary to confirm the presence of hip fracture. A high index of suspicion often is required for prompt diagnosis and treatment of an occult hip fracture. Even when a patient is able to walk and has no documented trauma, localized hip pain, or typical shortening and malrotation deformity, the family physician should be alert to the possibility of hip fracture, particularly in a patient who is older than 65 years, presents with nonspecific leg discomfort, and complains of difficulty bearing weight on the affected limb. A heightened suspicion for hip fracture should lead to further diagnostic evaluation, especially if the patient has additional risk factors, such as use of a complicated drug regimen, impaired vision, physical or neurologic impairment, or comorbid condition (e.g., osteoporosis, malignancy). When hip fracture is detected early, appropriate treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality and prevent the rapid decline in quality of life that often is associated with this injury.
Hip Pain in Preschool-Age Children - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - Article
ABSTRACT: Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the posterior hip and buttock, or the lateral hip. Anterior hip and groin pain is commonly associated with intra-articular pathology, such as osteoarthritis and hip labral tears. Posterior hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication. Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Clinical examination tests, although helpful, are not highly sensitive or specific for most diagnoses; however, a rational approach to the hip examination can be used. Radiography should be performed if acute fracture, dislocations, or stress fractures are suspected. Initial plain radiography of the hip should include an anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog-leg lateral view of the symptomatic hip. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if the history and plain radiograph results are not diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for the detection of occult traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the diagnostic test of choice for labral tears.