ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: The combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus defines autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type II. The conditions may occur in any order, and diagnosis is confounded by the nonspecific nature of the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. The disorder is not common, but consequences can be life threatening when the diagnosis is overlooked. The conditions usually present in midlife, and women are affected more often than men. The cosyntropin test is recommended for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, which must be present to diagnose this syndrome. Hormone therapy for each condition is similar to treatment that would be provided if the conditions occurred separately, except that treatment for adrenal insufficiency must be given before thyroid therapy is started when the conditions occur together.
ABSTRACT: The most common endogenous cause of Cushing's syndrome is Cushing's disease. Frequent clinical findings include weight gain, truncal obesity, striae, hypertension, glucose intolerance and infections. Cranial nerve II may be affected by enlarging pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease; cranial nerves III, IV and VI may also be affected. The evaluation of patients with suspected Cushing's disease and syndrome requires an understanding of the proper use and limitations of the tests commonly included in the diagnostic work-up. The best screening test for Cushing's syndrome is a 24-hour urine collection with analysis for urinary free cortisol excretion. Low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests, corticotropin assays, a corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test and inferior petrosal sinus catheterization may be required for a definitive diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in localizing the lesion. Surgical removal of the lesion by a transphenoidal approach is usually successful, but long-term follow-up is required. Some patients require lifetime glucocorticoid replacement therapy.
Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - Article
ABSTRACT: Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal inflammation, resulting in otalgia, itching, canal edema, canal erythema, and otorrhea, and often occurs following swimming or minor trauma from inappropriate cleaning. Tenderness with movement of the tragus or pinna is a classic finding. Topical antimicrobials or antibiotics such as acetic acid, aminoglycosides, polymyxin B, and quinolones are the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases. These agents come in preparations with or without topical corticosteroids; the addition of corticosteroids may help resolve symptoms more quickly. However, there is no good evidence that any one antimicrobial or antibiotic preparation is clinically superior to another. The choice of treatment is based on a number of factors, including tympanic membrane status, adverse effect profiles, adherence issues, and cost. Neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone preparations are a reasonable first-line therapy when the tympanic membrane is intact. Oral antibiotics are reserved for cases in which the infection has spread beyond the ear canal or in patients at risk of a rapidly progressing infection. Chronic otitis externa is often caused by allergies or underlying inflammatory dermatologic conditions, and is treated by addressing the underlying causes.