Items in AFP with MESH term: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State - Article
ABSTRACT: Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolarity, and little or no ketosis. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the aging population, this condition may be encountered more frequently by family physicians in the future. Although the precipitating causes are numerous, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, non-compliance, undiagnosed diabetes, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. Physical findings of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state include those associated with profound dehydration and various neurologic symptoms such as coma. The first step of treatment involves careful monitoring of the patient and laboratory values. Vigorous correction of dehydration with the use of normal saline is critical, requiring an average of 9 L in 48 hours. After urine output has been established, potassium replacement should begin. Once fluid replacement has been initiated, insulin should be given as an initial bolus of 0.15 U per kg intravenously, followed by a drip of 0.1 U per kg per hour until the blood glucose level falls to between 250 and 300 mg per dL. Identification and treatment of the underlying and precipitating causes are necessary. It is important to monitor the patient for complications such as vascular occlusions (e.g., mesenteric artery occlusion, myocardial infarction, low-flow syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy) and rhabdomyolysis. Finally, physicians should focus on preventing future episodes using patient education and instruction in self-monitoring.
ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolarity is part of a clinical spectrum of severe hyperglycemic disorders ranging from pure hyperglycemic hyperosmolarity without ketosis to diabetic ketoacidosis, with significant overlap in the middle. From 50 to 75 percent of hospitalizable patients who have uncontrolled diabetes present with significant hyperosmolarity. An altered state of consciousness attributable to uncontrolled diabetes is virtually always the result of severe hyperosmolar hyperglycemia. The linchpin of therapy is prompt, rapid administration of crystalloid solutions that have tonicity appropriate to the level of hyperosmolarity. A decrease in the plasma glucose concentration indicates the adequacy of therapy, especially rehydration; the goal is for the plasma glucose level to decline by at least 75 to 100 mg per dL (4.2 to 5.6 mmol per L) per hour. Patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome are often chronically ill, and they may have major total body deficits of potassium, phosphate and magnesium, as well as B-complex vitamins (especially thiamine). These deficits also require attention and correction during therapy.