Items in AFP with MESH term: Hypersensitivity, Immediate

Allergy Testing - Article

ABSTRACT: Percutaneous and intradermal skin tests and laboratory assays of specific IgE antibodies may be useful in selected cases of allergy management. Percutaneous testing kits are available from various manufacturers. A number of common allergens are available in standardized preparations. Positive and negative skin controls are important in establishing reliable results. Antihistamine medications can interfere with skin testing and should be stopped beforehand. Serious reactions to skin testing are rare. Establishing the sensitivity and specificity of percutaneous testing is difficult because there is no widely accepted gold standard for defining a true allergic reaction. Intradermal testing is more sensitive than percutaneous methods but much less specific. Its use is restricted to testing for allergy to insect stings or penicillin. In cases where skin testing is not available or desirable, laboratory assays for IgE antibodies to specific allergens may be used. These assays are generally less sensitive than skin testing methods. Selected patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma that is not controlled with standard therapy may benefit from allergy testing, especially when it can target allergen avoidance measures or guide immunotherapy.

Latex Allergy - Article

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of latex allergy in the general population is low; however, the risk of developing latex allergy is higher in persons with increased latex exposure, such as health care workers or persons who work in the rubber industry. Children with spina bifida and others who undergo multiple surgeries or procedures, particularly within the first year of life, are also at greater risk of latex allergy. Reactions to latex allergy can range from type IV delayed hypersensitivity (e.g., contact dermatitis) to type I immediate hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis). Latex allergy can be diagnosed with clinical history, skin prick testing, latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E testing, and glove provocation testing. The main goals of latex allergy management are avoidance of exposure to latex allergens and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions. The use of nonlatex products from birth may prevent potentially serious allergic reactions. Widespread adoption of nonlatex or low-latex gloves has decreased the incidence of latex sensitization in health care workers.

Latex Allergy - Article

ABSTRACT: Natural latex from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is an allergen in persons with significant cumulative latex exposure, such as those in the health care and rubber industries, as well as those undergoing repeated surgeries, especially if they undergo surgeries early in life. Symptoms of latex allergy may progress rapidly and unpredictably to anaphylaxis. The prevalence of latex allergy has increased as the use of rubber gloves in health care settings has increased. Airborne latex particles that adhere to the cornstarch used to powder gloves are a significant cause of respiratory symptoms and a source of sensitization. Once an individual has become sensitized, he or she may experience allergic symptoms when exposed to any product containing latex. Diagnosis is made initially by the history. Latex-specific IgE testing and skin prick testing may confirm the suspicion. The most effective strategy in the treatment of latex allergy is avoidance; however, there is a large group of sensitized people who have not been identified and who do not recognize that their symptoms are caused by latex allergy. Physicians caring for latex-sensitive persons must act as their advocates in building awareness of the problem and developing protocols for their safe care. Latex-sensitized persons should be educated about the latex content of common objects.

Latex Allergy: A New and Common Problem - Editorials

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