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ABSTRACT: Newborn infants may be transferred to a special care nursery because of conditions such as prematurity (gestation less than 37 weeks), prolonged resuscitation, respiratory distress, cyanosis, and jaundice, and for evaluation of neonatal sepsis. Newborn infants' core temperature should be kept above 36.4 degrees C (97.5 degrees F). Nutritional requirements are usually 100 to 120 kcal per kg per day to achieve an average weight gain of 150 to 200 g (5 to 7 oz) per week. Standard infant formulas containing 20 kcal per mL and maternal breast milk may be inadequate for premature infants, who require special formulas or fortifiers that provide a higher calorie content (up to 24 kcal per mL). Intravenous fluids should be given when infants are not being fed enterally, such as those with tachypnea greater than 60 breaths per minute. Hypoglycemia can be asymptomatic in large-for-gestational-age infants and infants of mothers who have diabetes. A hyperoxia test can be used to differentiate between pulmonary and cardiac causes of hypoxemia. The potential for neonatal sepsis increases with the presence of risk factors such as prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal colonization with group B streptococcus. Jaundice, especially on the first day of life, should be evaluated and treated. If the infant does not progressively improve in the special care nursery, transfer to a tertiary care unit may be necessary.
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease often require surgical interventions for vascular access and for medical problems related to comorbid conditions. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are increased in these patients. Preoperative attention to common medical problems that occur in patients with impaired renal function can lower some surgical risks. Hyperkalemia can be temporarily improved by the intravenous administration of an insulin-dextrose combination or bicarbonate, and polystyrene binding resins or dialysis can remove excess stores of potassium. Increased bleeding related to uremic platelet dysfunction can be managed by the administration of desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, or estrogens, and by avoiding the use of medications with antiplatelet effects close to the time of surgery. Transfusions of red blood cells should be reserved for use in patients with clinically significant anemia, because antibody formation may decrease the likelihood of successful renal transplantation in the future. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients with renal disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease may have hypertension and hypoglycemia in the perioperative period. Preoperative testing may be necessary in patients with cardiac risk factors. If future vascular access grafting is contemplated, intravenous line placement and blood draws should be avoided in a patient's nondominant arm.
ABSTRACT: Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in helping patients make essential lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of these complications. Key recommendations that family physicians can give patients to optimize their outcomes include: take control of daily decisions regarding your health, focus on preventing and controlling risk factors for cardiovascular disease, tightly control your blood glucose level, be cognizant of potentially inaccurate blood glucose test results, use physiologic insulin replacement regimens, and learn how to manage and prevent hypoglycemia.
ABSTRACT: Research has established the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels near normal in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Short-acting insulin analogs are designed to overcome the limitations of regular short-acting insulins. Compared with regular human insulin, the analog insulin lispro offers faster subcutaneous absorption, an earlier and greater insulin peak and a more rapid postpeak decrease. Insulin lispro begins to exert its effects within 15 minutes of subcutaneous administration, and peak levels occur 30 to 90 minutes after administration. Duration of activity is less than five hours. Rates of insulin allergy, lipodystrophy, hypoglycemia and abnormal laboratory test results are essentially the same in patients using insulin lispro and in those using regular human insulin.
ABSTRACT: Tight glucose control with intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) can delay the onset and slow the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Optimal blood glucose control is defined by a target glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7 percent, a preprandial glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L) and a bedtime glucose level of 100 to 140 mg per dL (5.6 to 7.8 mmol per L). This article provides guidelines to help family physicians teach patients with type 1 diabetes how to achieve tight glucose control to help minimize complications. Guidelines include maintaining blood glucose levels at near normal by taking doses of short-acting insulin throughout the day supplemented by a nighttime dose of intermediate-acting insulin, monitoring blood glucose levels frequently, following a prudent diet, exercising regularly and effectively managing hypoglycemia, as well as empowering patients to lead their control efforts and rigorously controlling other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Support from physicians, family members and friends is crucial to the success of a regimen of tight glucose control.
Are Long-acting Insulin Analogues Better Than Isophane Insulin? - Cochrane for Clinicians