Items in AFP with MESH term: Hypoglycemic Agents
ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus focus on three areas: intensive lifestyle intervention that includes at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity, weight loss with an initial goal of 7 percent of baseline weight, and a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet; aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria) with the use of aspirin, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; and normalization of blood glucose levels (hemoglobin A1C level less than 7 percent). Insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose output are the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes, and each class of medication targets one or more of these defects. Metformin, which decreases hepatic glucose output and sensitizes peripheral tissues to insulin, has been shown to decrease mortality rates in patients with type 2 diabetes and is considered a first-line agent. Other medications include sulfonylureas and nonsulfonylurea secretagogues, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones. Insulin can be used acutely in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes to normalize blood glucose, or it can be added to a regimen of oral medication to improve glycemic control. Except in patients taking multiple insulin injections, home monitoring of blood glucose levels has questionable utility, especially in relatively well-controlled patients. Its use should be tailored to the needs of the individual patient.
ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms can be subtle and varied. These may include hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and biochemical abnormalities, most notably insulin resistance. Treatment should target specific manifestations and individualized patient goals. When choosing a treatment regimen, physicians must take into account comorbidities and the patient's desire for pregnancy. Lifestyle modifications should be used in addition to medical treatments for optimal results. Few agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifically for use in polycystic ovary syndrome, and several agents are contraindicated in pregnancy. Insulin-sensitizing agents are indicated for most women with polycystic ovary syndrome because they have positive effects on insulin resistance, menstrual irregularities, anovulation, hirsutism, and obesity. Metformin has the most data supporting its effectiveness. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are also effective for ameliorating hirsutism and insulin resistance. Metformin and clomiphene, alone or in combination, are first-line agents for ovulation induction. Insulin-sensitizing agents, oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and topical eflornithine can be used in patients with hirsutism.
ABSTRACT: Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may augment or antagonize the actions of prescription and nonprescription drugs. St. John's wort is the supplement that has the most documented interactions with drugs. As with many drug-drug interactions, the information for many dietary supplements is deficient and sometimes supported only by case reports. Deleterious effects are most pronounced with anticoagulants, cardiovascular medications, oral hypoglycemics, and antiretrovirals. Case reports have shown a reduction in International Normalized Ratio in patients taking St. John's wort and warfarin. Other studies have shown reduced levels of verapamil, statins, digoxin, and antiretrovirals in patients taking St. John's wort. Physicians should routinely ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur.
Metformin Therapy and Diabetes Prevention in Adolescents Who Are Obese - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries
Effectiveness of Insulin Sensitizing Drugs for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Cochrane for Clinicians
Does Pioglitazone Benefit Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Intensive Management of Gestational Diabetes - Cochrane for Clinicians
Link Between Metformin and Lactic Acidosis? - Cochrane for Clinicians
Corrections - Corrections
Insulin Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy - Cochrane for Clinicians