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ABSTRACT: Research has established the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels near normal in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Short-acting insulin analogs are designed to overcome the limitations of regular short-acting insulins. Compared with regular human insulin, the analog insulin lispro offers faster subcutaneous absorption, an earlier and greater insulin peak and a more rapid postpeak decrease. Insulin lispro begins to exert its effects within 15 minutes of subcutaneous administration, and peak levels occur 30 to 90 minutes after administration. Duration of activity is less than five hours. Rates of insulin allergy, lipodystrophy, hypoglycemia and abnormal laboratory test results are essentially the same in patients using insulin lispro and in those using regular human insulin.
ABSTRACT: Subopitmal glycemic control in hospitalized patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus can have adverse consequences, including increased neurologic ischemia, delayed wound healing and an increased infection rate. Poor glycemic control can also affect the outcome of the primary illness. If possible, hospitalized diabetic patients should continue their previous antihyperglycemic treatment regimen. Decreased physical activity and the stress of illness often lead to hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. When indicated, insulin is given either as a supplement to usual therapy or as a temporary substitute. The overall benefit of the traditional sliding-scale insulin regimen has been questioned. Insulin supplementation given according to an algorithm may be a logical alternative. Any antihyperglycemic regimen should be administered and monitored in a manner coincident with the intake of food or other sources of calories. Factors that can alter glycemic control acutely, including specific medical conditions and medications, should be identified and anticipated.
Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Article
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes) causes abnormal carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Insulin resistance is a major contributor to progression of the disease and to complications of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a common and underdiagnosed condition that poses treatment challenges to family practitioners. The introduction of new oral agents within the past three years has expanded the range of possible combination regimens available for treating type 2 diabetes. Despite the choice of pharmacologic agents, physicians must stress the nonpharmacologic approaches of diet modification, weight control and regular exercise. Pharmacologic approaches must be based on patient characteristics, level of glucose control and cost considerations. Combinations of different oral agents may be useful for controlling hyperglycemia before insulin therapy becomes necessary. A stepped-care approach to drug therapy may provide the most rational, cost-efficient approach to management of this disease. Pharmaco-economic analyses of clinical trials are needed to determine cost-effective treatment strategies for management of type 2 diabetes.
Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Article
ABSTRACT: Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. The management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and low-dose insulin therapy. The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in most patients. Cerebral edema, one of the most dire complications of diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Continuous follow-up of patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for the patient to contact the physician early during an illness.
ABSTRACT: Tight glucose control with intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) can delay the onset and slow the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Optimal blood glucose control is defined by a target glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7 percent, a preprandial glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L) and a bedtime glucose level of 100 to 140 mg per dL (5.6 to 7.8 mmol per L). This article provides guidelines to help family physicians teach patients with type 1 diabetes how to achieve tight glucose control to help minimize complications. Guidelines include maintaining blood glucose levels at near normal by taking doses of short-acting insulin throughout the day supplemented by a nighttime dose of intermediate-acting insulin, monitoring blood glucose levels frequently, following a prudent diet, exercising regularly and effectively managing hypoglycemia, as well as empowering patients to lead their control efforts and rigorously controlling other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Support from physicians, family members and friends is crucial to the success of a regimen of tight glucose control.
ABSTRACT: The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes) has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. In particular, new insulin strategies have improved the ability to maintain near-normal glycemia. Factors such as onset, peak and duration of action can influence the ability of a particular insulin regimen to help control glucose levels. Patient factors, including individual variations in insulin absorption, levels of exercise and types of meals consumed, also influence the effectiveness of an insulin regimen. Rapid-acting insulin lispro is an ideal mealtime insulin. The premeal dose of insulin lispro can be adjusted based on the content of the meal and the patient's blood glucose level. Intermediate-acting and long-acting insulins should not be given to account for the content of a specific meal. Long-acting insulin can be administered once daily at bedtime or, ideally, twice daily in addition to another type of insulin. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically require an insulin dosage of 0.5 to 1.0 unit per kg per day. Newly diagnosed patients may have lower initial requirements because of continued endogenous insulin production. Flexible insulin regimens are based on predetermined actions in response to self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and carbohydrate intake.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and interventional studies have led to lower treatment targets for type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes), including a glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7 percent or less and a before-meal blood glucose level of 80 to 120 mg per dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol per L). New oral medications make these targets easier to achieve, especially in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Acarbose, metformin, miglitol, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone help the patient's own insulin control glucose levels and allow early treatment with little risk of hypoglycemia. Two new long-acting sulfonylureas (glimepiride and extended-release glipizide) and a short-acting sulfonylurea-like agent (repaglinide) simply and reliably augment the patient's insulin supply. Combinations of agents have additive therapeutic effects and can restore glucose control when a single agent is no longer successful. Oral therapy for early type 2 diabetes can be relatively inexpensive, and evidence of its cost-effectiveness is accumulating.
Why Can't This Patient Take Insulin? - Curbside Consultation
Significant FDA Approvals in 1999 - FDA Perspective