Items in AFP with MESH term: Immunization Schedule
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes approximately 3,300 cases of meningitis, 100,000 to 135,000 cases of pneumonia requiring hospitalization and 6 million cases of otitis media annually in the United States. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, approved in 2000 for use in the United States, was designed to cover the seven serotypes that account for about 80 percent of invasive infections in children younger than six years. This vaccine demonstrated 100 percent efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease in the primary analysis of a large randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. In the follow-up analysis, performed eight months after the trial ended, efficacy against invasive disease was found to be 94 percent for the included serotypes. When initiated during infancy, the four-dose vaccination schedule is set at two, four, six and 12 to 15 months of age. The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends routine vaccination of infants, catch-up vaccination of children younger than 24 months and catch-up vaccination of children 24 to 59 months of age with high-risk medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and congenital heart disease.
ABSTRACT: When monitoring growth and development in the premature infant, physicians should make adjustments for the estimated due date. With minor exceptions, administration of immunizations is based on the chronologic age. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be delayed until the infant weighs 2,000 g (4 lb, 5 oz). Administration of influenza vaccine should be considered in infants with chronic medical problems, and the pneumococcal vaccine may be beneficial at age two in children with chronic problems, especially pulmonary disease. Premature infants should also be monitored to assure appropriate nutrition. Breast-fed infants should probably receive vitamin supplements during the first year. Supplemental iron should be initiated at two weeks to two months after birth and continued for 12 to 15 months. Office care includes screening for problems that occur more frequently in premature infants, especially vision and hearing problems. Because many of these infants require care from multiple medical disciplines, coordination of care is another important role for the family physician. The goals of this care are to promote normal growth and development and minimize morbidity and mortality.
Poliovirus Vaccine Options - Article
ABSTRACT: As a result of the success of immunization, indigenous wild poliomyelitis has disappeared from the United States. Of 142 confirmed cases of paralytic poliomyelitis reported in the United States from 1980 to 1996, 134 were classified as vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Persons with VAPP have a disabling illness, and this has caught the attention of the lay media. The risk of VAPP is one case per 750,000 doses distributed for the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and one case per 2.4 million doses of OPV distributed overall. Because of this risk, most parents prefer a vaccine schedule that starts with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), even though extra injections are required. IPV does not cause VAPP. New studies show that high immunization rates can be achieved in disadvantaged populations with a schedule starting with IPV. The American Academy of Family Physicians now recommends that the first two doses of poliovirus vaccine should be IPV; that is, either an all-IPV schedule or a sequential schedule of two doses of IPV followed by two doses of OPV. OPV is no longer recommended for the first two doses and is acceptable only under special circumstances, such as when parents do not accept the recommended number of injections.
ACIP Issues Updated Recommendations for Polio Vaccine - Practice Guidelines
The 2001 Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule - Practice Guidelines
The 2003 Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule - Practice Guidelines
Clinical Briefs - Clinical Briefs