Items in AFP with MESH term: Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
The Relief of Getting a Diagnosis - Close-ups
Primary Immunodeficiencies - Article
ABSTRACT: Primary immunodeficiencies include a variety of disorders that render patients more susceptible to infections. If left untreated, these infections may be fatal. The disorders constitute a spectrum of more than 80 innate defects in the body's immune system. Primary immunodeficiencies generally are considered to be relatively uncommon. There may be as many as 500,000 cases in the United States, of which about 50,000 cases are diagnosed each year. Common primary immunodeficiencies include disorders of humoral immunity (affecting B-cell differentiation or antibody production), T-cell defects and combined B- and T-cell defects, phagocytic disorders, and complement deficiencies. Major indications of these disorders include multiple infections despite aggressive treatment, infections with unusual or opportunistic organisms, failure to thrive or poor growth, and a positive family history. Early recognition and diagnosis can alter the course of primary immunodeficiencies significantly and have a positive effect on patient outcome.
Primary Care and Primary Immunodeficiencies - Editorials
ABSTRACT: One in 2,000 children younger than 18 years is thought to have a primary immunodeficiency disease. Antibody, combined B-cell and T-cell, phagocytic, and complement disorders are the most common types. Children with these diseases tend to have bacterial or fungal infections with unusual organisms, or unusually severe and recurrent infections with common organisms. A family history of primary immunodeficiency disease is the strongest predictor of a person having this type of disease. When an immunodeficiency disease is suspected, initial laboratory screening should include a complete blood count with differential and measurement of serum immunoglobulin and complement levels. The presence of lymphocytopenia on complete blood count suggests a T-cell disorder, whereas a finding of neutropenia suggests a phagocytic disorder. Abnormal serum immunoglobulin levels suggest a B-cell disorder. Abnormalities on assay of the classic or alternative complement pathways suggest a complement disorder. If laboratory results are abnormal, or if clinical suspicion continues despite normal laboratory results, children should be referred for further evaluation. Human immunodeficiency virus infection should also be considered, and testing should be performed, if appropriate; this infection often clinically resembles a T-cell disorder.