ITEMS IN AFP WITH MESH TERM:
ABSTRACT: The shoulder is the site of multiple injuries and inflammatory conditions that lend themselves to diagnostic and therapeutic injection. Joint injection should be considered after other therapeutic interventions such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and activity-modification have been tried. Indications for glenohumeral joint injection include osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. For the acromioclavicular joint, injection may be used for diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis and distal clavicular osteolysis. Subacromial injections are useful for a range of conditions including adhesive capsulitis, subdeltoid bursitis, impingement syndrome, and rotator cuff tendinosis. Scapulothoracic injections are reserved for inflammation of the involved bursa. Persistent pain related to inflammatory conditions of the long head of the biceps responds well to injection in the region. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the elbow is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedures for the elbow joint, medial and lateral epicondylitis, and olecranon bursitis are reviewed. Persistent pain related to inflammatory conditions responds well to injection in the region. Indications for elbow joint injection include osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroid injection is an accepted treatment option for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Olecranon bursa aspiration and injection are useful when that bursa is inflamed. The proper techniques, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up essential for effective outcomes are discussed.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the wrist and hand region is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain's tenosynovitis, osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint, wrist ganglion cysts, and digital flexor tenosynovitis (trigger finger) are reviewed. Indications for carpal tunnel syndrome injection include median nerve compression resulting from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, repetitive use injury, and other traumatic injuries to the area. For the first carpometacarpal joint, injection may be used to treat pain secondary to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Pain associated with de Quervain's tenosynovitis is treated effectively by therapeutic injection. If complicated by pain or paresthesias, wrist ganglion cysts respond to aspiration and injection. Painful limitation of motion occurring in trigger fingers of patients with diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis also improves with injection. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Joint injection of the hip and knee regions is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the family physician. In this article, the injection procedure for the greater trochanteric bursa, the knee joint, the pes anserine bursa, the iliotibial band, and the prepatellar bursa is reviewed. Indications for greater trochanteric bursa injection include acute and chronic inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, repetitive use, and other traumatic injuries to the area. For the knee joint, aspiration may be performed to aid in the diagnosis of an unexplained effusion and relieve discomfort caused by an effusion. Injection of the knee can be performed for viscosupplementation or corticosteroid therapy. Indications for corticosteroid injection include advanced osteoarthritis and other inflammatory arthritides, such as gout or calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Swelling and tenderness of pes anserine or prepatellar bursae can be relieved with aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Persistent pain and disability from iliotibial band syndrome respond to local injection therapy. The proper technique, choice and quantity of pharmaceuticals, and appropriate follow-up are essential for effective outcomes.
Temporomandibular Joint Disorders - Article
ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.
ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is a common but often difficult problem to manage in primary care. Traditional nonsurgical management, consisting of lifestyle modification, physical therapy and pharmacologic therapy (e.g., analgesics, anti-inflammatory medications), is often ineffective or leaves residual symptoms. Viscosupplementation is a newly available option for patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis that involves a series of intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid. The exact mechanism of action is unclear, although increasing the viscoelasticity of the synovial fluid appears to play a role. Clinical experience and studies of the two hyaluronic acid products available, hyaluronan and hylan G-F 20, are inconclusive but seem to indicate beneficial effects with minimal adverse reactions in a significant number of patients. The exact indications for viscosupplementation are still evolving, but it currently can be considered for use in patients who have significant residual symptoms despite traditional nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments. In addition, patients who are intolerant of traditional treatments (e.g., gastrointestinal problems related to anti-inflammatory medications) can be considered for these injections. Family physicians with the ability to perform intra-articular knee injections should consider them an option in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT: Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.
ABSTRACT: Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. This impingement typically produces neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic myelography can confirm neurologic compression. The overall prognosis of persons with cervical radiculopathy is favorable. Most patients improve over time with a focused, nonoperative treatment course. There is little high-quality evidence on the best nonoperative therapy for cervical radiculopathy. Cervical collars may be used for a short period of immobilization, and traction may temporarily decompress nerve impingement. Medications may help alleviate pain and neuropathic symptoms. Physical therapy and manipulation may improve neck discomfort, and selective nerve blocks target nerve root pain. Although the effectiveness of individual treatments is controversial, a multimodal approach may benefit patients with cervical radiculopathy and associated neck pain.
Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis - Article
ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended. Opioids are being used more often in patients with moderate to severe pain or diminished quality of life, but patients receiving these drugs must be carefully selected and monitored because of the inherent adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are effective, but evidence for injection of hyaluronic acid is mixed. Arthroscopic surgery has been shown to have no benefit in knee osteoarthritis. Total joint arthroplasty of the knee should be considered when conservative symptomatic management is ineffective.