Items in AFP with MESH term: Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic

Common Intestinal Parasites - Article

ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive.


Primary Care of International Adoptees - Article

ABSTRACT: International adoptees are presenting to family physicians with increasing frequency. U.S. citizens have adopted over 100,000 international children since 1979. Prospective parents may seek advice from their physician during the adoptive process. If available at all, medical information on the child is often scanty. History and physical examination alone are often insufficient for diagnosis of common problems in this population. Adoptive parents may have concerns about growth and development, and appropriate immunizations. In addition, bacterial, viral and parasitic infections endemic in countries of origin create unusual challenges for the U.S. primary care physician. A basic understanding of the process of international adoption, a skillful evaluation of the child and selected laboratory studies enable the family physician to support the prospective parents and assist in a smooth transition of the child into a new family.



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